ICIS Research Publications


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B.H. Boar. Practical steps for aligning information technology with business strategies. Wiley, New York, New York, USA, 1999, ISBN 0471076376.

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J.T. Gorgone, P. Gray, D.L. Feinstein, G.M. Kasper, J.N. Luftman, E.A. Stohr, J.S. Valacich, and R.T. Wigand. MSIS 2000 - Model Curriculum and Guidelines for Graduate Degree Programs in Information Systems. ACM, AIS, 1999.

MSIS 2000: Model Curriculum and Guidelines for Graduate Degree Programs in Information Systems is the latest report from m odel curriculum work in the information systems field. The work of IS curricula task groups began in the early 1970s and has continued for alm ost 30 years. The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) has been a major organizer for these task groups including the first efforts in the 1970s. Other organizations, including AITP (formerly DPMA) and IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing), have aided model curriculum development. MSIS 2000 is the second collaborative effort between ACM and the Association for Information Systems (AIS). Both organizations have a worldwide membership. ACM has both professional and academic members in the broad field of computing. Through its Education Board, it supports a wide range of curriculum developm ent including computer science, information systems, and software engineering. AIS, organized in 1994, is composed of faculty members in information systems. The partnership of ACM and AIS, therefore, combines the breadth of interest of ACM and the information systems interest of AIS. All of the members of the task group belong to both organizations.

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Altavista search engine project. 1999.

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S. Alter. A general, yet useful theory of information systems. In: Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Nr: 13, Vol: 1, 1999.

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M. Andries, G. Engels, Annegret Habel, Berthold Hoffmann, Hans-Jörg Kreowski, Sabine Kuske, Detlef Plump, Andy Schürr, and Gabriele Taentzer. Graph transformation for specification and programming. In: Science of Computer Programming, Nr: 1, Vol: 4, Pages: 1-54, April, 1999.

The framework of graph transformation combines the potentials and advantages of both, graphs and rules, to a single computational paradigm. In this paper we present some recent developments in applying graph transformations as a rule-based framework for the specification and development of systems, languages and tools. After reviewing the basic features of graph transformation, we discuss a selection of applications, including the evaluation of functional expressions, the specification of an interactive graphical tool, an example specification for abstract data types and the definition of a visual database query language. The case studies indicate the need for suitable structuring principles which are independent of a particular graph transformation approach. To this end, we present the concept of a transformation unit, which allows systematic and structured specification and programming based on graph transformation.

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D.E. Avison, F. Lau, M. Meyers, and P.A. Nielsen. Action Research. In: Communications of the ACM, Nr: 1, Vol: 42, Pages: 94-97, 1999.

To make academic research relevant, researchers should try out their theories with practitioners in real situations and real organizations.

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R.A Baeza-Yates, and B. Ribeiro-Neto. Modern Information Retrieval. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 020139829X.

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R. Baskerville. Investigating Information Systems with Action Research. In: Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Nr: 19, Vol: 2, October, 1999.

Action research is an established research method in use in the social and medical sciences since the mid-twentieth century, and has increased in importance for information systems toward the end of the 1990s. Its particular philosophic context is couched in strongly post-positivist assumptions such as idiographic and interpretive research ideals. Action research has developed a history within information systems that can be explicitly linked to early work by Lewin and the Tavistock Institute. Action research varies in form, and responds to particular problem domains. The most typical form is a participatory method based on a five-step model, which is exemplified by published IS research.

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Christoph Baumgarten. A Probabilistic Solution to the Fusion Problem in Distributed Information Retrieval. In: Proceedings of the 22th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, ACM Press, 1999.

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R.A Baeza-Yates, and B. Ribeiro-Neto. Modern information retrieval. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 020139829X.

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Doug Beeferman, Adam Berger, and John D. Lafferty. Statistical Models for Text Segmentation. In: Machine Learning, Nr: 1-3, Vol: 34, Pages: 177-210, 1999.

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A. Belaïd, and A. David. The Use of Information Retrieval Tools in Automatic Document Modeling and Recognition. In: 10th International Workshop on Database & Expert Systems Applications, Pages: 522-526, September, 1999.

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T. Berners-Lee, Dan Connolly, and Ralph R. Swick. Web ARchitecture: Describing and Exchanging Data. Technical report, June, W3C, 1999.

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Nigel Bevan. Quality in use: meeting user needs for quality. In: Journal of System and Software, Nr: 1, Vol: 49, Pages: 89-96, 1999.

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B.H. Boar. Constructing Blueprints for Enterprise IT architectures. Wiley, New York, New York, USA, 1999, ISBN 0471296201.

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E. Bonabeau, M. Dorigo, and G. Theraulaz. Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems. Santa Fe Institute Studies on the Sciences of Comp, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, EU, 1999, ISBN 0195131592.

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G. Booch, J. Rumbaugh, and I. Jacobson. The Unified Modelling Language User Guide. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0201571684.

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H. de Bruijn, and E. ten Heuvelhof. Scientific Expertise in Complex Decision-making Processes. In: Science and Public Policy, Nr: 3, Vol: 16, Pages: 179-184, 1999.

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C. Bussler. Enterprise-Wide Workflow Managament. In: IEEE Concurrency, Vol: July-Septe, Pages: 32-43, 1999.

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C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Hsu. Enabling Concept-Based Relevance Feedback for Information Retrieval on the WWW. In: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Nr: 4, Vol: 11, Pages: 595-609, 1999.

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L. Chung, D. Gross, and E. Yu. Architectural design to meet stakeholder requirements. In: First Working IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA1), San Antonio, Texas, USA, Edited by: P. Donohue. Software Architecture, Pages: 545-564, Kluwer, Deventer, The Netherlands, EU, 1999.

Architectural design occupies a pivotal position in software engineering. It is during architectural design that crucial requirements such as performance, reliability, costs, etc., must be addressed. Yet the task of achieving these properties remains a difficult one. Senior architects with many years of experience have to make difficult choices to meet competing requirements. This task is made even more difficult with the shift in software engineering paradigm from monolithic, stand-alone, built-from-scratch systems to componentized, evolvable, standards-based, and product line oriented systems. Many well-established design strategies need to be reconsidered as new requirements such as evolvability, reusability, time-to-market, etc., are becoming more important. These requirements do not come from a single source, but result from negotiations among many stakeholders. A systematic framework is needed to help architects achieve quality requirements during architectural design. This paper outlines an approach that formulates architectural properties such as modifiability and performance as "softgoals" which are incrementally refined. Tradeoffs are made as conflicts and synergies are discovered. Architectural decisions are traced to stakeholders and their dependency relationships. Knowledge-based tool support for the process would provide guidance during design as well as records of design rationales to facilitate understanding and change management.

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P. Dasgupta, N. Narasimhan, L.E. Moser, and P.M. Melliar-Smith. MAgNET: Mobile Agents for Networked Electronic Trading. In: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Nr: 4, Vol: 11, Pages: 509-525, 1999.

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S. Dharanipragada, M. Franz, J. McCarley, S. Roukos, and T. Ward. Story Segmentation and Topic Detection in The Broadcast News Domain. In: Proceedings of the DARPA Broadcast News Workshop, 1999.

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Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. 1999.

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R. Ebert. Justin Time: Net Nostalgia. In: Yahoo! Internet Life, April, 1999.

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B. Edwards. The New Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. Revised and Expanded edition, J.P. Tarcher, 1999, ISBN 0874774241.

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H. Eertink, W. Janssen, P. Oude Luttighuis, W. Teeuw, and C. Vissers. A Business Process Design Language. In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Formal Methods, 1999.

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Information System Concepts: An integrated discipline emerging - Proceedings of the third IFIP WG8.1 conference (ISCO-3). Edited by: E.D. Falkenberg, K. Lyytinen, and A.A. Verrijn-Stuart. Kluwer, Deventer, The Netherlands, EU, 1999.

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Managing Acquisition Processes. Edited by: M. Franckson, and T.F. Verhoef. Information Services Procurement Library, ten Hagen & Stam, Den Haag, The Netherlands, EU, 1999, ISBN 9076304815.

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Specifying Deliverables. Edited by: M. Franckson, and T.F. Verhoef. Information Services Procurement Library, ten Hagen & Stam, Den Haag, The Netherlands, EU, 1999, ISBN 9076304823.

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Dictionary. Edited by: M. Franckson, and T.F. Verhoef. Information Services Procurement Library, ten Hagen & Stam, Den Haag, The Netherlands, EU, 1999, ISBN 907630484X.

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ISP in the European Public Sector: Guidelines. Edited by: M. Franckson, and T.F. Verhoef. Information Services Procurement Library, ten Hagen & Stam, Den Haag, The Netherlands, EU, 1999, ISBN 9076304866.

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Managing Risks and Planning Deliveries. Edited by: M. Franckson, and T.F. Verhoef. Information Services Procurement Library, ten Hagen & Stam, Den Haag, The Netherlands, EU, 1999, ISBN 9076304831.

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Norbert E. Fuchs, Uta Schwertel, and Rolf Schwitter. Attempto Controlled English - Not Just Another Logic Specification Language. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol: 1559, Pages: 1-20, 1999.

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Stefan Fünfrocken, and Friedemann Mattern. Mobile Agents as an Architectural Concept for Internet-based Distributed Applications - The WASP Project Approach. In: Proceedings of the KiVS`99 (Kommunikation in Verteilten Systemen), Edited by: Steinmetz. Pages: 32-43, Springer, 1999.

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Nathaniel Good, J. Ben Schafer, Joseph A. Konstan, Al Borchers, Badrul M. Sarwar, Jonathan L. Herlocker, and John Riedl. Combining Collaborative Filtering with Personal Agents for Better Recommendations. In: AAAI/IAAI, Pages: 439-446, 1999.

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Michael Gordon, and Praveen Pathak. Finding information on the World Wide Web: the retrieval effectiveness of search engines. In: Information Processing and Management, Nr: 2, Vol: 35, Pages: 141-180, March, 1999.

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Jeff Heflin, James Hendlef, and Sean Luke. SHOE: A Knowledge Representation Language for Internet Applications. Technical report: DAAL01-97-K0135, Institute for Computer Studies, University of Maryland, 1999, Supported by the Army Research Laboratory.

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Monika R. Henzinger, Allan Heydon, Michael Mitzenmacher, and Marc Najork. Measuring Index Quality Using Random Walks on the Web. In: Proceedings of the 8th International World Wide Web Conference, Pages: 213-225, May, Compaq Computer Corporation Systems Research Center, Elsevier, 1999.

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I. Herman, G. Melancon, and M.S. Marshall. Graph Visualisation in Information Visualisation. In: Proceedings of Eurographics `99, Edited by: B. Falcidieno, and J. Rossignac. 1999.

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C. Hoelscher, and G. Strube. Searching on the web: two types of expertise. In: Proceedings of the 22st Annual International ACM-SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Berkeley, California, USA, Pages: 305-306, August, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 1999.

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Consumer value, a framework for analysis and research. Edited by: M.B. Holbrook. Routledge, New York, New York, USA, 1999, ISBN 0415191939.

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Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition. IEEE, Los Alamitos, California, USA, 1999.

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Introduction to ISPL. Edited by: M. Franckson, and T.F. Verhoef. Information Services Procurement Library, ten Hagen & Stam, Den Haag, The Netherlands, EU, 1999, ISBN 9076304858.

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I. Jacobson, G. Booch, J.E. Rumbaugh, and J. Rumbaugh. Unified Software Development Process. Addison Wesley, 1999.

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N.R. Jennings. Agent-Oriented Software Engineering. In: Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on Modelling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World : Multi-Agent System Engineering (MAAMAW-99), Heidelberg, Germany, EU, Edited by: F.J. Garijo, and M. Boman. Vol: 1647, Pages: 1-7, Springer, 1999.

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C. Klas, N. Goevert, and N. Fuhr. Distributed agents for user-friendly access of Digitital Libraries. In: Searching for information: artificial intelligence and information retrieval approaches, Pages: 17/1-17/3, The Institution of Electrica EngineersLondon, UK, 1999.

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R.P. Klemm. WebCompanion: A Friendly Client-Side Web Prefetching Agent. In: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Nr: 4, Vol: 11, Pages: 577-594, 1999.

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ISP for Web Engineering. Edited by: N. Koch, and A. Helmerich. Information Services Procurement Library, ten Hagen & Stam, Den Haag, The Netherlands, EU, 1999, ISBN 9076304874.

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A. Kohn. Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A`s, Praise, and Other Bribes. Paperback edition, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 1999, ISBN 0618001816.

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C.H.A. Koster. Normalization and matching in the DORO system. In: Proceedings of the BCS-IRSG, 1999.

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Marios Koufaris, Tomás Isakowitz, and Michael Bieber. Web Information Systems: Introduction to the Minitrack. In: Thirty-second Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Pages: 5052-5053, January, 1999.

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Universal Resource Names. 1999.

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Ora Lassila, and Ralph R. Swick. Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification. Technical report, February, W3C, 1999.

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Steve Lawrence, and C. Lee Giles. Searching the Web: General and Scientific Information Access. In: IEEE Communications, Nr: 1, Vol: 37, Pages: 116-122, 1999.

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L. Liu, C. Pu, and W. Tang. Continual Queries for Internet Scale Event-Driven Information Delivery. In: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Nr: 4, Vol: 11, Pages: 610-628, 1999.

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The Lycos(tm) `Catalog of the Internet`. 1999.

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Neil A. Maiden, Shailey Minocha, Alistair G. Sutcliffe, Darrel Manuel, and Michele Ryan. A co-operative scenario based approach to acquisition and validation of system requirements: How exceptions can help!. In: Interacting with Computers, Nr: 6, Vol: 11, Pages: 645-664, 1999.

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Marshall V. Van Alstyne. A proposal for valuing information and instrumental goods. In: Proceeding of the 20th international conference on Information Systems, Pages: 328-345, Association for Information Systems, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, 1999, ISBN ICIS1999X.

This essay offers a framework for valuing information process capital by combining ideas from economics and computer science. Drawing a distinction between data and procedures, it augments the traditional Bayesian model that treats information as a change in uncertainty with elements that permit information to be treated as reusable instructions. It then applies the standard hedonic methodsused in marketing to value tangible goods to information goods. This leads to a generalized method for ascribing value that can be applied both to procedural information such as software, blueprints, and production know-how as well as to arbitrary resources that have instrumental qualities, that is, they represent tools for effecting outcomes. This approach has the added advantage of supporting efficient information transfers since consumers need not always see the information they are about to buy.

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D.W. McDavid. A standard for business architecture description. In: IBM Systems Journal, Nr: 1, Vol: 38, Pages: 12-31, 1999.

A complete architectural specification of an information technology (IT) system includes information about how it is partitioned and how the parts are interrelated. It also contains information about what it should do and the purpose it must serve in the business. This paper provides a set of business concepts that partition the world of business meaning. It discusses the purpose of such an architectural view of business and ways in which it can be used. A set of generic concepts and their interrelationships organize business information content in terms of requirements on the business, the boundary of the business, and the business as a system for delivery of value. Methods are introduced to explore variations on the basic business concept patterns. These concepts are positioned to describe IT systems that support the business, and they are used to manage the work of IT system development and deployment.

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P.P.T.M. van Mun. Fuzzy Navigeren in de Association Index Architecture. University of Nijmegen, 1999, In Dutch.

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Cultuur en Wetenschappen Ministerie van Onderwijs. Beleidsbrief Internationalisering van het Onderwijs. 1999.

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OMNI, Organizing Medical Networked Information. 1999.

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J.J. Paijmans. Explorations in the Document Vector Model of Information Retrieval. Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands, EU, 1999, ISBN 9036100240.

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W.-J. van den Heuvel, M.P. Papazoglou, and M.A. Jeusfeld. Configuring business objects from legacy systems. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference CAiSE`99 on Advanced Information Systems Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany, EU, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 1999.

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Soyeon Park. User preferences when searching individual and integrated full-text databases. In: Proceedings of the fourth ACM conference on Digital Libraries, Berkeley, California, USA, Pages: 195-203, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 1999, ISBN 1581131453.

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Hans-Rüdiger Pfister, Martin Wessner, Torsten Holmer, and Ralf Steinmetz. Negotiating About Shared Knowledge in a Cooperative Learning Environment. In: Proceedings of the Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (CSCL) 1999 Conference, Edited by: C. Hoadley & J. Roschelle. 1999.

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J. Picard. Finding content-bearing terms using term similarities. In: Ninth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 1999, accepted for publication, student session.

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Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS). 1999.

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E.S. Raymond. The Cathedral & The Bazaar. O`Reilly, Sebastopol, California, USA, 1999, ISBN 1565927249.

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V.E. van Reijswoud, J.B.F Mulder, and J.L.G. Dietz. Commucation Action Based Business Process and Information Modelling with DEMO. In: The Information Systems Journal, Nr: 2, Vol: 9, Pages: 117-138, 1999.

The field of communicative action based modelling of business processes and information systems has attracted more and more attention in recent years. Inspired by the seminal work of Winograd and Flores, researchers have proposed several modelling approaches. In this paper we discuss communicative action based modelling approaches in general and the DEMO (Dynamic Essential Modelling of Organisations) approach in particular. Besides establishing the theoretical foundations of this modelling approach we also apply DEMO to a case study, and we discuss how the resulting models can be used for information systems design and business process optimisation.

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V.E. van Reijswoud, and J.G.L. Dietz. DEMO Modelling Handbook. 2nd edition, Vol: 1, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, EU, 1999.

In the end of the 1980.s at the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands a research programme started to develop a communication oriented business modelling approach. The programme was inspirited by the development of the Language/Action Perspective (LAP) as presented by Terry Winograd and Fernando Flores in 1986. In this book the idea was elaborated that the structure of organisations could be understood as networks of commitments. The functioning of the organisation was explained in terms of the functioning of communication between people. The commitments that are created when the members of an organisation are communicating were considered to be the backbone of the organisation.

In line with the Language/Action Perspective, communication in the DEMO (Dynamic Essential Modelling of Organisation) methodology is considered from an action perspective. This means that communication is more than the exchange of information alone. When engaged in communication, the participants are trying to influence each other.s behaviour, in other words, by everything they say they DO something. This view is fundamentally different from the information exchanging view, where communication is primarily considered as a means to convey information from one person to another. In the information exchange view, notions like obligation, responsibility or communicatively imposed actions fall outside the scope of interest.

In this book we will provide an overview of the current status of the DEMO methodology.

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S. Robertson, and J. Robertson. Mastering the Requirements Process. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0201360462.

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G. Ropohl. Philosophy of Socio-Technical Systems.. In: In Society for Philosophy and Technology, Nr: 3, Vol: 4, 1999.

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D. Rosenberg, and K. Scott. Use Case Driven Object Modeling with UML - A Practical Approach. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0201432897.

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(ed.) Sabatier. Theories of the Policy Process. West view Press, Boulder, Co., 1999.

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M.-T. Schmidt. The Evolution of Workflow Standards. In: IEEE Concurrency, Vol: July-Septe, Pages: 44-52, 1999.

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M. Schoop. An Empirical Study of Multidisciplinary Communication in Healthcare Using a Language-Action Perspective. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on the Language Action Perspective on Communication Modelling (LAP 1999), Pages: 59-72, Jönköping International Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark, EU, 1999, ISBN 9189164148.

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Shang-Hua Teng, Qi Lu, Matthias Eichstaedt, Daniel Ford, and Tobin Lehman. Collaborative Web Crawling: Information Gathering/Processing over Internet. In: Thirty-second Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Pages: 5044-5055, January, 1999.

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C.E. Shannon, and H.R. Varian. Information Rules, a strategic guide to the network economy. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 1999, ISBN 097584863X.

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A.P. Sheth, W.M.P. van der Aalst, and I.B. Arpinar. Processes Driving the Networked Economy. In: IEEE Concurrency, Vol: July-Septe, Pages: 18-31, 1999.

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S.K. Shrivastava, and S.M. Wheater. Workflow-Management Systems. In: IEEE Concurrency, Vol: July-Septe, Pages: 16-17, 1999.

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J. Simons. An Evaluation of Semantic Inference to Enhance Information Retrieval. Technical report, 1999.

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SOSIG: The Social Science Information Gateway. 1999.

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D.F. D`Souza, and A.C. Wills. Objects, Components and Frameworks with UML - The Catalysis Approach. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0201310120.

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Kimberly Speight. Gaps in the worldwide information explosion: How the Internet is affecting the worldwide knowledge gap. In: Telematics and Informatics, Nr: 3, Vol: 16, Pages: 135-150, August, 1999.

Ask almost any journalist where the future of mass media is headed, and he or she might answer that it is inevitably headed in the direction of more and more on-line news. Indeed, "new media" is being taught in many journalism schools now. And in a profession known for high salaries in only the rarest of cases, one can often hear journalists musing about the Internet, stating that that is where the "real money" is to be made....

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CHAOS: A Recipe for Succes. Technical report, The Standish Group International, West Yarmouth, Massachusetts, USA, 1999.

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Milena T. Stefanova. Properties of Typing Systems. University of Nijmegen, 1999, ISBN 9090127399.

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D.G. Stork. Character and document research in the Open Mind initiative. In: Proceedings of the 5th IAPR International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Bangalore, India, Pages: 1-12, September, IEEE, Los Alamitos, California, USA, 1999.

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Tomek Strzalkowski, Fang Lin, Jin Wang, and Jose Perez-Carballo. Evaluating Natural Language Processing Techniques in Information Retrieval - A TREC Perspective. In: Natural Language Information Retrieval, Edited by: Tomek Strzalkowski. April, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

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Natural Language Information Retrieval. Edited by: Tomek Strzalkowski. April, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

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R. Sutton. The Policy Process: An Overview, Working Paper No. 118. Overseas Development Institute, London, 1999.

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K. Sycara, M. Klusch, S. Widoff, and Lu. J.. Dynamic Service Matchmaking Among Agents in Open Information Environments. In: ACM SIGMOD Record, Edited by: A. Ouksel, and A. Sheth. Nr: 1, Vol: 28, Pages: 47-53, 1999.

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K. Sycara, J. Lu, M. Klusch, and S. Widoff. Matchmaking Among Heterogeneous Agents on the Internet. In: Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium on Intelligent Agents in Cyberspace, 1999.

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Ben Tiggelaar. Internet Srategie, concurrentievoordeel in de digitale economie, theory en praktijk. Addison Wesley, 1999, In Dutch, ISBN 9067898775.

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E. Turban, J. Lee, D. King, and H.M. Chung. Electronic Commerce, a managerial perspective. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA, 1999, ISBN 0139752854.

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M. van Uden. Navigeren op het WWW. University of Nijmegen, 1999, In Dutch.

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A. Valente, T. Russ, R. MacGregor, and W. Swartout. Building and (Re)Using an Ontology of Air Campaign Planning. In: IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol: 1, Pages: 27-36, 1999.

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H.R. Varian. Economics and search. In: SIGIR Forum, Nr: 1, Vol: 33, Pages: 1-5, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 1999.

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P.E. van der Vet, and J.I. Mars. CQE: a query engine for coordinated index terms. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Systems, Vol: 50, Pages: 485-492, 1999.

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C. Vishik, and A.B. Whinston. Knowledge sharing, quality, and intermediation. In: Proceedings of the international joint conference on Work activities coordination and collaboration, San Francisco, California, USA, Pages: 157-166, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 1999, ISBN 1581130708.

Informal publishing flourished in the World Wide Web environment, where every user with a sufficient level of access can become a publisher. Although it appears that in such an environment intermediation in the distribution and sharing of information becomes unnecessary, the uneven quality of information and resulting quality uncertainty of information users, together with the increased search efforts, represent a sufficient reason for information and knowledge intermediaries to preserve and even reinforce their roles. Large-scale efforts in knowledge management pursued by industry leaders highlight the need for "new" intermediation.The paper focuses on economic and business issues in the distribution and sharing of Internet based information and digital products. We address the inefficiency of the pure exchange model in "information markets" that is analyzed based on double coincidence of wants and the lack of discernment on the part of users (many of them occasional users) about the market and intrinsic value of informational and digital products. These inefficiencies can be remedied with the introduction of recognizable currencies, which do not have to be of monetary nature, and the situation can be further improved with intermediation. We conclude that "virtual communities" and intermediation are important in ameliorating the efficiency of the distribution of the electronic information and quality of informational goods. This point of view is supported by the success of the new Internet-based intermediaries, such as Yahoo.

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Claire Vishik, and Andrew B. Whinston. Knowledge sharing, quality, and intermediation. In: WACC `99: Proceedings of the international joint conference on Work activities coordination and collaboration, San Francisco, California, USA, Pages: 157-166, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 1999, ISBN 1581130708.

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M. Vitruvius. Handboek Bouwkunde. Athenaeum - Polak & Van Gennep, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EU, 1999, Translated by: T. Peters, ISBN 9025358705.

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Dave Raggett, Arnoud Le Hors, and Ian Jacobs. HTML 4.01 Specification. Technical report, October, World Wide Web Consortium, 1999, Last checked: 10-may-2003.

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J. Warmer, and A. Kleppe. Praktisch UML. 2nd edition edition, Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 9043004944.

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R.T. Watson. Data Management, Databases and Organizations. Second Edition edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York, USA, 1999.

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H. Wupper, and A.H. Mader. System Design as a Creative Mathematical Activity. Technical report: CSI-R9919, Institute for Computing and Information Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

This paper contributes to the understanding of rational systems design and verification. We give evidence that the role of mathematics in development and verification is not limited to useful calculations: Ideally, designing is a creative mathematical activity, which comprises finding a theorem, if necessary strengthening its assumptions until it can be proven. A canonical form of this verification theorem. is introduced and illustrated with informal and formal examples. Although for good reasons most systems are designed without use of formal methods it may be a source of useful insight to understand all design as an .approximation. of such a mathematical activity. This leads amongst others to a taxonomy of design decisions, and it may help to relate paradigms, theories, methods, languages, and tools from different areas of computer science to each other to make optimal use of them.

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Journal

F.C. Berger, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Ranking strategies for navigation-based query formulation. In: Journal of intelligent information systems, Nr: 1, Vol: 12, 1999.

Navigating through a hypermedia retrieval system bears the problem of selecting an item from a large number of options which are available to continue the trajectory. Ranking these options according to some criterion is a method to ease the task of navigation. A number of ranking strategies have already been proposed. This paper presents a formalization of the concept of ranking, and of the aforementioned strategies. Furthermore we propose two strategies which allow a personalized approach to ranking.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper, and P.D. Bruza. What is Information Discovery About?. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Nr: 9, Vol: 50, Pages: 737-750, July, 1999.

The Internet has led to an increase in the quantity and diversity of information available for searching. Furthermore, users are bombarded by a constant barrage of electronic messages in the form of e-mail, faxes, etc. This has led to a plethora of search engines, ``intelligent'' agents, etc. that aim to help users in their quest for relevant information, or shield them against irrelevant information. All these systems aim to identify the potentially relevant information in amongst a large pool of available information.

No unifying underlying theory for information discovery systems exists as yet. The aim of this article is to provide a logic-based framework for information discovery, and relate this to the traditional field of information retrieval. Furthermore, the often ignored user receives special emphasis. In information discovery, a good understanding of a user's (sometimes hidden) needs and beliefs is essential.

We will develop a logic-based approach to express the mechanics of information discovery, while the pragmatics are based on an analysis of the underlying informational semantics of information carriers and information needs of users.

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Conference

J.J. Sarbo. Formal conceptual structure in language. In: Proceedings of Computing Anticipatory Systems (CASYS`98), Edited by: D.M. Dubois. Pages: 289-300, AIP Conference Proceedings 465, Woodbury, New York, USA, 1999.

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G. Antoniou, D. Billington Guido Governatori, and M.J. Mahler. On the Modelling and Analysis of Regulations. In: Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, Pages: 20-28, 1999.

Regulations are a wide-spread and important part of government and business. They codify how products must be made and processes should be performed. Such regulations can be difficult to understand and apply. In an environment of growing complexity of, and change in, regulation, automated support for reasoning with regulations is becoming increasingly necessary. In this paper we report on ongoing work which aims at providing automated support for the drafting and use of regulations using logic modelling techniques. We highlight the support that can be provided by logic modelling, describe the technical foundation of our project, and report on the status of the project and the next steps.

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G.Y. Debrock, J.I. Farkas, and J.J. Sarbo. Syntax from a Peircean perspective. In: 5th International Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering, Edited by: P. Sandrini. Pages: 180-189, 1999.

One of the inconveniences of language is that in every day discourse we never know what someone else is speaking of until he has finished speaking. This feature is in some sense baffling. Yet, in another way, it is a feature which characterizes almost every sort of action, or indeed, any sort of gesture. The only reason why we may not be disturbed by it, is that, as is the case for so many areas of human life, sequences of words or of gestures have become customary within given situations. The better we are acquainted with a person, the more we are able to predict what a particular gesture may lead to. The same goes for language. People are wont to use expressions and we often need only to hear the first word, to know exactly what will follow. Nevertheless, the fact remains that the development of sentences and of discourses has an element of unpredictibility. The premise of this paper is the paradox that the utter unpredictibility of language is nevertheless governed by laws.

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J.I. Farkas, and J.J. Sarbo. A Peircean framework of syntactic structure. In: ICCS`99, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, Edited by: W. Tepfenhart, and W. Cyre. Lecture Notes in AI, Vol: 1640, Pages: 112-126, Springer, 1999.

A semiotic framework for the syntactic structure of language is introduced. From properties of syntactic signs a parsing algorithm is derived. Using English as an example it is shown that, by means of its syntactic structures, the English language implements signs, analogous to those of Peirce's semiotic triads.

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F.A. Grootjen, V. Kamphuis, and J.J. Sarbo. Coordination and multi-relational modelling: `X and X` revisited. In: Traitement automatique des langues naturelles (TALN), Edited by: P. Amsili. Pages: 345-351, 1999.

A relational model of language is developed which unifies traditional features of X-bar theory with lexicon based modelling. It is argued that such a model provides the appropriate basis for handling problematic cases of non-constituent coordination and gapping. A prototype implementation is discussed on the basis of six representative examples, corpus-based.

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J.J. Sarbo. Formal Conceptual Structure in Language. In: AIP Conference Proceedings of the American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, New York, USA, Edited by: D.M. Dubois. Pages: 289-300, Springer, 1999.

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Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Conference on Information Systems. 1999.

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Th.P. van der Weide. IR bijdrage aan Polyautomatiseringsboekje. PBNA, 1999, In Dutch.

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Reports

A.T. Arampatzis, Th.P. van der Weide, C.H.A. Koster, and P. van Bommel. Text Filtering using Linguistically-motivated Indexing Terms. Technical report: CSI-R9901, January, Computing Science Institute, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, EU, 1999.

In this article we describe a number of text filtering experiments based on indexing terms other than simple keywords. These experiments were conducted as a first step of validating a phrase-based retrieval model. Our approach in the selection of indexing terms was based on a part-of-speech tagger and shallow parsing. Different types of indexing terms were evaluated, including keywords, nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, adjacent word-pairs and head-modifier pairs. Furthermore, the effect of lemmatizing terms was investigated. Evaluation was done with three utility-based measures and average set precision. We managed to obtain experimental evidence that the phrase-based retrieval model performs better than keyword-based models. Our experiments showed that an indexing set of keywords can be reduced by retaining only some certain part-of-speech categories without any substantial negative impact in performance; in some cases the effectiveness even improved. Furthermore, we found that lemmatization can produce confusion between nouns and verbs decreasing effectiveness, while overall it is beneficial especially for phrasal terms.

Keywords: Text-Filtering, Natural Language Processing, Indexing, Rocchio, Binary Terms, Lemmatization.

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M.C.A. Devillers. Translating IOA automata to PVS. Technical report: CSI-R9903, February, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

IOA is a specification language for input/output automata based on the model of Lynch and Tuttle; IOA is developed at MIT by Garland and Lynch and is a part of the Larch family of specification languages. We present a compiler which translates IOA specifications to input for the Prototype Verification System (PVS) by means of examples.

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M. Huisman, and B.P.F. Jacobs. Java Program Verification via a Hoare Logic with Abrupt Termination. Technical report: CSI-R9912, June, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

This paper formalises a semantics for statements andexpressions (in sequential imperative languages) which includes non-termination, normal termination and abrupt termination (e.g. because of an exception, break, return orcontinue). This extends the traditional semantics underlying e.g. Hoare logic, which only distinguishes termination and non-termination. An extension of Hoare logic is elaborated that includes means for reasoning about abrupt termination (and side-effects). It prominently involves rules for reasoning about while loops, which may contain exceptions, breaks, continues and returns. This extension applies in particular to Java. As an example, a standard pattern search algorithm in Java (involving a while loop with returns) is proven correct using the proof-tool PVS.

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B.P.F. Jacobs. The Temporal Logic of Coalgebras via Galois Algebras. Technical report: CSI-R9906, April, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

This paper introduces a temporal logic for coalgebras.Nexttime and lasttime operators are defined for a coalgebra,acting on predicates on the state space. They give rise towhat is called a Galois algebra.Galois algebras form models of temporal logics like Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) and Computation Tree Logic (CTL). The mapping from coalgebras to Galois algebrasturns out to be functorial, yielding indexed categorical structures. This gives many examples, for coalgebras ofpolynomial functors on sets. Additionally, it will be shown how``fuzzy'' predicates on metric spaces, and predicates onpresheaves, yield indexed Galois algebras, in basically thesame coalgebraic manner.

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P.A. Jones, P. van Bommel, C.H.A. Koster, and Th.P. van der Weide. Best First Search techniques in Document Processing applications. Technical report: CSI-R9902, January, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

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N. Lynch, R. Segala, F.W. Vaandrager, and H.B. Weinberg. Hybrid I/O Automata. Technical report: CSI-R9907, April, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

We propose a new hybrid automaton model that is capable ofdescribing both continuous and discrete behavior.The model, which extends the timed automaton model of Lynch & Vaandrager, and the phase transition system models of Maler, Manna & Pnueli, and of Alur et al, allows communication among components using both sharedvariables and shared actions.The main contributions of this paper are:(1) a definition of hybrid automata and of an implementationrelation based on hybrid traces,(2) a definition of a simulation between hybrid automata anda proof that existence of a simulation implies the implementation relation,(3) a definition of composition and hiding operations on hybridautomata and a proof that these operations respect the implementation relation,(4) a definition of hybrid I/O automata, which specialize hybridautomata by an additional distinction between input and output, and a proof that the results on simulation relations, composition and hiding carry over to this new setting, and(5) a definition of receptiveness for hybrid I/O automata anda proof that, assuming certain compatibility conditions, receptiveness is preserved by composition.

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M.I.A. Stoelinga, and F.W. Vaandrager. Root Contention in IEEE 1394. Technical report: CSI-R9905, March, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

The model of probabilistic I/O automata of Segala and Lynch is used for the formal specification and analysis of the root contention protocol from the physical layer of the IEEE 1394 (""FireWire"") standard. In our model of the protocol both randomization and real-time play an essential role. In order to make our verification easier to understand we introduce several intermediate automata in between the implementation and the specification automaton. This allows us to use very simple notions of refinement rather than the more general but also very complex simulation relations which have been proposed by Segala and Lynch.

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M.I.A. Stoelinga. Gambling for Leadership: Verification of Root Contention in IEEE 1394. Technical report: CSI-R9904, March, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

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B.C.M. Wondergem, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Effective and Efficient Descriptors for Information Discovery. Technical report, University of Nijmegen, 1999.

The effectiveness and efficiency of searches for relevant documents strongly depend on key features of the descriptor language supported by the retrieval system. Effectiveness, for instance, is limited by the expressiveness of the descriptors. In addition, system efficiency is proportional to tractability. Furthermore, user effort is relative to comprehensibility and compactness. From a formulation point of view, compactness allows a high degree of integration, combining several occurrences of an analogous concept in a single expression. A proper descriptor language for information discovery should thus find a workable balance between these features.

Boolean index expressions (BIEs) are proposed as balanced descriptors for the communication of information needs. Compared to many other descriptor languages, an advantage of BIEs is their compactness, offering the opportunity to convey much information in a succinct way. The goal of this article is to investigate compactness of BIEs. For instance, we analyse how compactness is brought about in BIEs and how it can be effectively measured. In addition, two classes of BIEs are investigated that illustrate the bounds on the compactness of BIEs: minimal and maximal BIEs. The bounds are explicitly derived and illustrated by generic examples. Furthermore, we report on experiments that ascertain the merit of minimal and maximal BIEs.

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B.C.M. Wondergem, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Counting and Generating (Boolean) Index Expressions. Technical report, University of Nijmegen, 1999, Technical Report CSI-R99xx.

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B.C.M. Wondergem, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Compactness of Boolean Index Expressions. Technical report: CSI-R9911, June, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

Boolean index expressions (BIEs) form an expressive and tractable descriptor language for text representation. Another advantage is that BIEs are compact, meaning that equivalent Boolean combinations of (regular) index epressions require more terms, connectors, and logical operators. In this article, it is investigated how compact BIEs are. Two classes od BIEs are defined that illustrate the bounds on the compactness of BIEs: minimal and maximal BIEs. The bounds are explicitly derived and illustrated by generic examples.

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I. Bethke, J.W. Klop, and R. de Vrijer. Descendants and Origins in Term Rewriting. Technical report: CSI-R9921, October, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

In this paper we treat various aspects of a notion that is central in term rewriting, namely that of descendants or residuals. We address both first order term rewriting and l-calculus, their finitary as well as their infinitary variants. A recurrent theme is the Parallel Moves Lemma. Next to the classical notion of descendant, we introduce an extended version, known as �origin tracking�. Origin tracking has many applications. Here it is employed to give new proofs of three classical theorems: the Genericity Lemma in l-calculus, the theorem of Huet and L�vy on needed reductions in first order term rewriting, and Berry�s Sequentiality Theorem in (infinitary) l-calculus.Note: This article is based on a lecture given by Jan Willem Klop at RTA�98 held in Tsukuba, Japan.

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I. Bethke, J.W. Klop, and R. de Vrijer. Extending Partial Combinatory Algebras. Technical report: CSI-R9920, October, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

We give a negative answer to the question whether every partial combinatory algebra can be completed. The explicit counterexample will be an intricately constructed term model, the construction and the proof that it works heavily depending on syntactic techniques. In particular, it is a nice example of reasoning with elementary diagrams and descendants. We also include a domain-theoric proof of the existence of an incompletable partial combinatory algebra.

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M.J. de Mol, and M.C.J.D. van Eekelen. A Prototype Dedicated Theorem Prover for Clean. Technical report: CSI-R9913, October, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

This paper examines an approach to computer assisted formal reasoning in relation to functional programming. Instead of using a generic proof tool which may differ on some points from the functional language used, a new proof tool is to bedeveloped which is solely intended for proving properties of programs written in one specific language. This proof tool is intended to be inserted in the Integrated Development Environment of the programming language, which ensures a seamless integration. A prototype approximating such a proof tool for the pure, lazy functional programming language Clean has been implemented and will be described in this paper. It will be shown how this prototype can be used and examples of theorems that can be proven with it will be given. An examination will be made of the work that needs to be done to extend the prototype to an integrated programming tool.

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A. Fehnker. Scheduling a steel plant with timed automata. Technical report: CSI-R9910, July, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

Scheduling in an environment with a large number of constraints is known to be a hard problem. We tackle this problem for a integrated steel plant in Ghent, Belgium, using Uppaal, a model checker for networks of timed automata. We show how to translate schedulability to reachability,enabling us to use Uppaals model checking algorithms.

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S. Ivanov, and W.O.D. Griffioen. Verification of a Biphase Mark Protocol. Technical report: CSI-R9915, August, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

We show how a symbolic model checker for linear hybridautomata can be used to analyze a biphase mark protocol.This protocol was first verified formally by Moore using a model of asynchrony.In this paper we demonstrate that algorithmic methods can automatically verify the correctness of the protocol for wider clock drifts.Unlike Moore, our model allows for clock jitter.We believe that linear hybrid automata enable a natural way ofmodeling the protocol.

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B.P.F. Jacobs, and E. Poll. A Monad for Basic Java Semantics. Technical report: CSI-R9926, December, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

This paper describes the role of a computational monad in the denotational semantics of sequential Java and investigates some of its properties. This denotational semantics is an abstraction of the one used for the verification of (sequential) Java programs using proof tools, see [8,12].

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P. Lambooij. The YAPI protocol for buffered data transfer. Technical report: CSI-R9923, December, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

A case study is presented of tool-assisant verification of a protocol used in industry to model Kahn processing networks. The object oriented specification language CCSL is used to describe the point to point communication between nodes in the network. CCSL is translated into the mathematical theories of coalgebras via a special compiler. These theories form the basis of a rigorous proof of correctness of data transfer and absence of deadlock in the protocol. Proofs are developed using the PVS system.

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E. Poll. The Type System of Aldor. Technical report: CSI-R9928, December, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

This paper gives a formal description of (at least a part of) the type system of Aldor, the extension language of the computer algebra system AXIOM. In the process of doing this a critique of the design of the system emerges.

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J.J. Sarbo, and J.I. Farkas. Sign Grammar. Technical report: CSI-R9922, October, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

Sign Grammar is a dependency based approach to syntactic structure in which the dependency relations are derived on a semiotic basis, from C.S. Peirce�s theory of s igns. We illustrate the potential of Sign Grammar by using English as an example. We argue that, by means of its syntactic structures, the English language implements signs analogous to �real� world signs introduced by C.S. Peirce. No familiarity with semiotic is assumed in the paper.

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J.A.G.M. van den Berg, M. Huisman, B.P.F. Jacobs, and E. Poll. A Type-Theoretic Memory Model for Verification of Sequential Java Programs. Technical report: CSI-R9924, November, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

This paper explains the details of the memory model underlying the verification of sequential Java programs in the framework of the �LOOP project. The building blocks of this memory are cells, which are untyped in the sense that they can store the contents of the fields of an arbitrary Java object. The main memory is then modeled as three infinite series of such cells, for storing instance variables on a heap, local variables and parameters on a stack, and static (or class)variables in the third series. Verification on the basis of this memory model is illustrated both in PVS and in Isabelle/HOL, via several examples of Java programs, involving various subtleties of the language (wrt. memory storage).

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H.X. Willems. Compact Timed Automata for PLC Programs. Technical report: CSI-R9925, December, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

In this work a set of tools is developed to convert programsfor Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) into timed automata in order to facilitate the verification of such programs.It is shown that our timed automaton models of PLC programscan be dissected into a timed and an untimed part. Typically, the untimed part is much larger than the timed partand can be reduced in size by using the CADP toolset.The reduction in state space is substantial, even for smallPLC programs.

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H. Wupper. Anatomy of Computer Systems - Experiences with a new introductory informatics course. Technical report: CSI-R9914, August, Radboud University Nijmegen, 1999.

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Professional

S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers, and H.A. (Erik) Proper. Knowledge Discovery - De zoektocht naar verhulde en onthulde kennis. In: DB/Magazine, Nr: 7, Vol: 10, Pages: 21-25, November, 1999, In Dutch.

Menigeen zal bij het woord knowledge discovery wellicht denken aan technologieën zoals search engines, agent technologie, mining tools, meta-data standaarden, query talen/protocollen, etc. Naar onze mening bestaat knowledge discovery, net als kennismanagement, echter uit beduidend meer dan de onderliggende technologie. In dit artikel benaderen we knowledge discovery om deze redenen dan ook juist vanuit een conceptueel perspectief.

Het eerste doel van dit artikel is het verkrijgen van een beter begrip van knowledge discovery. Wat is het precies en wat kan ik ermee? Dit zullen we doen door referentie modellen op te stellen (in termen van een paradigma) die de essentiële mechanismen achter knowledge discovery op een conceptueel niveau weergeven. Deze referentiemodellen kunnen vervolgens tevens gebruikt worden om verschillende voor knowledge discovery relevante technologieën te positioneren: Waar past wat?

Op basis van de referentiemodellen en de link naar de onderliggende technologie, kan een applicatiearchitect vervolgens knowledge discovery toepassingen ontwerpen en inpassen in bestaande applicatiearchitecturen.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper. Een derde dimensie voor informatiemodelleren. In: DB/Magazine, Nr: 3, Vol: 10, Pages: 52-55, May, 1999, In Dutch.

De vraag hoe om te gaan met complexiteit is een vraag die op verschillende plekken in een software ontwikkelproces terugkomt. In dit artikel richten we ons op de complexiteit zoals deze tijdens de eerste fasen van de software ontwikkeling cyclus (de analyse fase) in de informatiemodellen naar voren komt. Het doel van dit artikel is om de lezer een simpele en praktische aanpak aan te reiken voor het omgaan met complexiteit in informatiemodellen.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper. ISPL toegepast - Aanbestedingen van grootschalige migratieprojecten. In: ID Nieuws, Vol: 3, Pages: 4-8, March, 1999, In Dutch.

Evolutie is een constante! Deze schijnbare tegenstelling is een bondige omschrijving van de condities waaronder veel ondernemingen tegenwoordig opereren. De liberalisering van markten, het verminderen van protectionisme, de privatisering van staatsbedrijven, de toenemende wereldwijze concurrentie, grensoverschrijdende bedrijfsfusies, het ontstaan van nieuwe economische blokken, de invoering van gemeenschappelijke munteenheden, zijn allemaal aspecten die bijdragen aan de dynamiek van het huidige ondernemersklimaat.

Dit soort ontwikkelingen heeft organisaties er inmiddels toe gebracht om een ruime schakering aan migratieprojecten op te starten. Projecten die allemaal tot doel hebben om door het ICT-dilemma heen te breken, en bestaande informatiesystemen beter voor te bereiden op de toekomst. Dit maakt dergelijke migratieprojecten ook van toenemend strategisch belang. Wanneer het aantal lopende (migratie)projecten binnen een organisatie toeneemt, wordt de roep om adequaat management van de aanbesteding en uitvoering van dergelijke projecten groter. Als deze projecten dan ook nog van strategisch belang zijn, wordt deze roep nog verder versterkt. Het management van de uitbesteding en de uitvoering van migratieprojecten vereist richtlijnen voor zowel de klanten als de leveranciers van migratiediensten.

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B.C.M. Wondergem, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Information Retrieval, een uitdagend onderzoeksgebied. In: Informatie Professional, Nr: 10, Vol: 3, Pages: 20-25, October, 1999, In Dutch.

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