ICIS Research Publications


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Frans J.M. Panken. Design and performance evaluation of multiple-access protocols for ATM-based passive optical networks. University of Nijmegen, 2000.

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Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software Intensive Systems. Technical report: IEEE P1471-2000, September, The Architecture Working Group of the Software Engineering Committee, Standards Department, IEEE, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA, 2000, ISBN 0738125180.

This recommended practice addresses the activities of the creation, analysis, and sustainment of architectures of software-intensive systems, and the recording of such architectures in terms of architectural descriptions. A conceptual framework for architectural description is established. The content of an architectural description is defined. Annexes provide the rationale for key concepts and terminology, the relationships to other standards,and examples of usage.

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Michael J. Albers, and Loel Kim. Implications of the wireless web for technical communicators: User web browsing characteristics using palm handhelds for information retrieval. In: Proceedings of IEEE professional communication society international professional communication conference and Proceedings of the 18th annual ACM international conference on Computer documentation: te, September, 2000.

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Yasuhito Asano, Hiroshi Imai, Masashi Toyoda, and Masaru Kitsuregawa. Applying the Site Information to the Information Retrieval from the Web. In: The Third International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering (WISE`00), Pages: 83-92, December, 2000.

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F. Bachmann, L. Bas, J. Carriere, P.C. Clements, D. Garlan, J. Ivers, R. Nord, and R. Little. Software Architecture Documentation in Practice: Documenting Architectural Layers. Technical report: CMU/SEI-2000-SR-004, March, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 2000.

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J. Barwise, and J. Etchemendy. Language Proof and Logic. Center for the Study of Language and Information, Leland Stanford Junior University Steven Bridges Press, 2000, ISBN 1889119083.

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Sean Bechhofer, Dieter Fensel, Carole Goble, Frank van Harmelen, Ian Horrocks, M. Klein, D.L. McGuiness, Enrico Motta, P.F. Patel-Schnieder, Steffen Staab, Rude Studer, Jeen Broekstra, Stefan Decker, and Michael Erdmann. An informal description of Standard OIL and Instance OIL. November, 2000.

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K. Beck, and M. Fowler. Extreme Programming Explained. Addison Wesley, 2000.

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Branimir Boguraev, and Mary S. Neff. Discourse Segmentation in Aid of Document Summarization. In: HICSS, 2000.

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P.D. Bruza, S. Dennis, and R. McArthur. Interactive internet search: keyword directory and query reformulation mechanisms compared. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual ACM Conference of Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR`2000), Athens, Greece, EU, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 2000, ISBN 1581132263.

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D. Byrd, and R. Podorozhny. Adding Boolean-quality control to best-match searching via an improved user interface. Technical report: IR-210, Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, 2000.

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M. Castells. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. 2nd edition, Volume 1 - The Rise of the Network Society, Blackwell, Oxford, United Kingdom, EU, 2000, ISBN 0631221409.

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S. Ceri, Piero Fraternali, and Aldo Bongio. Web Modeling Language (WebML). In: WWW9 Conference, May, 2000.

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A. Cruse. Meaning in Language, an Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, EU, 2000, ISBN 0198700105.

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Michael Day. Resource Discovery, Interoperability and Design Preservation. Some Aspects of Current Metadata Research and Development. In: VINE, Pages: 35-48, 2000.

Metadata is a term that is increasingly being used by the library and information communities and others to refer to structured data that describes or otherwise documents other data in order to support one or more specified functions. These functions may include, for example, resource discovery and access, collection management and resource evaluation, rights management and digital preservation.

Metadata is therefore an important area of research and development, much of it carried out by the library community in conjunction with colleagues working in the cultural heritage sector (primarily archives and museums), research institutions and publishing. UKOLN, the UK Office for Library and Information Networking, has been involved in a number of metadata-based projects and initiatives over the past five years. This paper will introduce some of the metadata-related issues raised by these. Particular, but not exclusive, attention will be made to projects and initiatives in which UKOLN has had some participation.

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Andreas Dengel, Claudia Wenzel, and Markus Junker. Profile-Based Information Supply from Text Sources. , 2000.

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L.C. Faulstich. The HyperView Approach to the Integration of Semistructured Data. Institute of Computer Science, Free University Berlin, 2000, partial, grabbed from Citeseer.

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M.F. Fernandez, Daniela Florescu, A.Y. Levy, and Dan Suciu. Declarative Specification of Web Sites with Strudel. In: VLDB Journal, Nr: 1, Vol: 9, Pages: 38-55, 2000.

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Jeff Heflin, and James Hendler. Searching the Web with SHOE. In: Artificial Intelligence for Web Search. Papers from the AAAI Workshop WS-00-01, Pages: 35-40, AAAI Press, 2000.

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C.W. van den Herik, and G.J. de Vreede. Experiences with facilitating policy meetings with Group Support Systems. In: Internaional Journal of Technology Management, Nr: 3/4/5, Vol: 19, 2000.

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B.-J. Hommes, and V.E. Reijswoud. Assessing the Quality of Business Process Modelling Techniques: Introduction of the Q-Me framework and example. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Hawaii, USA, IEEE, Los Alamitos, California, USA, 2000.

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J.J.A.C. Hoppenbrouwers. The Decomate Result Optimizer. Technical report, Infolab / Tilburg University, 2000.

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J.J.A.C. Hoppenbrouwers, and J.J. Paijmans. Invading the Fortress: How to Besiege Reinforced Information Bunkers. In: Advances in Digital Libraries, Pages: 27-38, 2000.

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T.A. Horan. Digital Places - Building our city of bits. The Urban Land Institute (ULI), Washington DC, USA, 2000, ISBN 0874208459.

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I. Horrocks. A Denotational Semantics for Standard OIL and Instance OIL. November, University of Manchester, Department of Computer Science, 2000.

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N.R. Jennings. On agent-based software engineering. In: Artificial Intelligence, Vol: 117, Pages: 277-296, 2000.

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P.A. Jones. Best first search and document processing applications. University of Nijmegen, 2000.

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R. Kazman, M. Klein, and P.C. Clements. ATAM: Method for Architecture Evaluation. Technical report: CMU/SEI-2000-TR-004, August, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 2000.

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Jeffrey O. Kephart, and Scott A. Fay. Competitive bundling of categorized information goods. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM conference on Electronic commerce, Minneapolis, Minesota, USA, Pages: 117-127, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 2000, ISBN 1581132727.

We introduce an information bundling model that addresses two important but relatively unstudied issues in real markets for information goods: automated customization of content based on categories and competition among content providers. Using this model, we explore the strategies that sellers (or automated agents acting on their behalf) might use to set both price and bundle composition, and the market dynamics that might ensue from such strategy choices. The model incorporates different categories of information, explicitly accounts for finite production and consumption costs and allows for possibly heterogeneous valuations by consumers. First we determine the optimal bundle composition and price for a monopolist as a function of the seller's production costs and the consumers' preferences and consumption costs. For finite costs, finite-sized bundles are optimal. Then ,we use game-theoretic analysis and simulation to explore the behavior of the market when there are multiple content providers. We find that, if consumer preferences are homogeneous, sellers choose to offer the same bundle that a monopolist would choose, but that competition forces sellers to offer the bundles at cost. For heterogeneous preferences, positive profits are possible, but there appears not to be a pure strategy Nash equilibrium. This is manifested as a never-ending cycle of prices and bundle choices when sellers employ a myopic best-response algorithm.

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E.H. Klijn, and J.F.M. Koppenjan. Public Management and Policy Networks: Foundation of a network approach to governance. In: Public Management, Nr: 2, Vol: 2, Pages: 135-158, 2000.

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P. Kruchten. The Rational Unified Process: An Introduction. 2nd edition, Addison Wesley, 2000, ISBN 0201707101.

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LC21, A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress. Committee on Information Technology Strategy for the Library of Congress, National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA, 2000, ISBN 0309071445.

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A. Leuski, and J. Allan. Lighthouse: showing the way to relevant information. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 2000, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, Pages: 125-130, October, IEEE, Los Alamitos, California, USA, 2000.

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A. Leuski, and J. Allan. Details of Lighthouse. Technical report: IR-212, Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, 2000.

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A. Leuski. Relevance and reinforcement in interactive browsing. In: Proceedings of the ninth international conference on Information and knowledge management, McLean, Virginia, USA, Pages: 119-126, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 2000.

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Ye Lu, Chunhui Hu, Xingquan Zhu, HongJiang Zhang, and Qiang Yang. A unified framework for semantics and feature based relevance feedback in image retrieval systems. In: Proceedings of the eighth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Marina del Rey, California, USA, Pages: 31-37, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 2000.

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Wolfgang May. An Integrated Architecture for Exploring, Wrapping, Mediating and Restructuring Information from the Web. In: Australasian Database Conference, Pages: 82-89, January, 2000.

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N. Medvidovic, and R.N. Taylor. A classification and comparison framework for software architecture description languages. In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Nr: 1, Vol: 26, Pages: 70-93, January, 2000.

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Pei-Min Chen, and Fong-Chou Kuo. An information retrieval system based on a user-profile. In: The Journal of Systems and Software, Nr: 1, Vol: 54, Pages: 3-8, september, 2000.

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Ali T. Al-Mishwat. ZGEOREF: a program for transformation of GEOREF database bibliographical extracts to reference formats suitable for earth science journals. In: Computers & Geosciences, Nr: 5, Vol: 26, Pages: 607-611, June, 2000.

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Atsuyuki Morishima, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Hironori Mizuguchi, and Seiichi Koizumi. Dynamic Creation of Multimedia Web Views on Heterogeneous Information Sources. In: 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Pages: 6036-6045, Januari, 2000.

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E.W. Morrison, and J.B. Vancouver. Within-Person Analysis of Information Seeking: The Effects of Perceived Costs and Benefits. In: Journal of Management, Nr: 1, Vol: 26, Pages: 119-137, 2000.

This study focused on how perceived costs and benefits affect information seeking across multiple types and sources of information. This focus required a within-person approach to data collection and analysis. Respondents were 282 early-career engineers. The results demonstrate that individuals selectively seek different types of information, and utilize different sources, based on assessments of corresponding costs and benefits. Results provide insight into individualss decisions about what information to seek and from whom, and highlight the value of studying within-person patterns of information seeking.

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E.W. Morrison, and J.B. Vancouver. Within-Person Analysis of Information Seeking: The Effects of Perceived Costs and Benefits. In: Journal of Management, Nr: 1, Vol: 26, Pages: 119-137, 2000.

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Nijmeegs Instituut voor Informatica & Informatiekunde. Zelfstudie Informatica. 2000.

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Bashar Nuseibeh, and Steve Easterbrook. Requirements engineering: a roadmap. In: ICSE - Future of SE Track, Pages: 35-46, 2000.

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J. Odell. Agents (Part 1): Technology and Usage. Technical report, Cutter Consortium, Arlington, Massachusetts, USA, 2000.

This executive report provides a 29-page overview of agents: what they are, how they are used, and the kind of technology that is currently considered for their implementation and support.

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J. Odell. Agents (Part 2): Complex Systems. Technical report, Cutter Consortium, Arlington, Massachusetts, USA, 2000.

This is a continuation of V3N4. It primarily discusses how the complex adaptive systems (or simply, complex systems) approach is applicable to developing multiagent applications. In particular, it discusses topics such as adaptation, emergence, ''edge-of-chaos'' phenomena, and the difference between agents and objects.

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P. Ogilvie. Extracting and using relationships found in text for topic tracking. Technical report: IR-209, Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, 2000.

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E. Oltmans. A Knowledge-Based Approach to Robust Parsing. University of Twente, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, EU, 2000.

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S. Pierra, C. Kacan, and W. Probst. An agent-based approach for integrating user profiles into a knowledge management process. In: Knowledge-Based Systems, Nr: 5, Vol: 13, Pages: 307 - 314, October, 2000.

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R.W. van der Pol. Knowledge-based Query-formulation in Information Retrieval. University of Maastricht, 2000, ISBN 9080157749.

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Coordination Languages and Models 4th International Conference, COORDINATION 2000. Edited by: A. Porto, and G.-C. Roman. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol: 1906, September, Springer, 2000.

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H. Raiffa, and R. Schlaifer. Applied Statistical Decision Theory. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 2000, ISBN 047138349X.

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Stephen Robertson, and Stephen Walker. Threshold Setting in Adaptive Filtering. In: Journal of Documentation, Vol: 56, Pages: 312-331, 2000.

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A.M.E. Roelofs. Structuring Policy Issues: Testing a mapping technique with Gaming/Simulation. Proefschrift Katholieke Universiteit Brabant, University of Nijmegen, 2000.

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G. Schreiber, H. Akkermans, A. Anjewierden, R. de Hoog, N. Shadbolt, W. Van de Velde, and B. Wielinga. Knowledge Engineering and Management; The CommonKADS Methodology. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 2000.

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M. Spitters, and W. Kraaij. A Language Modeling Approach to Tracking News Events. In: Notebook of the Topic Detection and Tracking 2000 Workshop, November, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, US, 2000.

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Antonis C. Stylianou, and Ram L. Kumar. An integrative framework for IS quality management. In: Commun. ACM, Nr: 9, Vol: 43, Pages: 99-104, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 2000, ISSN 00010782.

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Bedir Tekinerdogan. Synthesis-Based Software Architecture Design. University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, EU, 2000, ISBN 9036514304.

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Susana Pajares Tosca. A pragmatics of links. In: Proceedings of the eleventh ACM on Hypertext and hypermedia, San Antonio, Texas, USA, Pages: 77-84, ACM, New York, New York, USA, 2000.

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E. Turban, J. Lee, H.M. King, and D. Ching. Electronic Commerce, a managerial perspective. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA, 2000, ISBN 0139752854.

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H. van der Zee, P. Laagland, and B. Hafkenscheid. Architectuur als managementinstrument - Multi Client Study. , Beheersing en besturing van complexiteit in het ne edition, Ten Hagen Stam, Den Haag, The Netherlands, EU, 2000, ISBN 904400087X.

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J.C. van Vliet. Software Engineering - Principles and Practice. 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, USA, 2000, ISBN 0471975087.

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Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification - Version 1.0. 2000.

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Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification. 2000.

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Tim Bray, Jean Paoli, C.M. Sperberg-McQueen, and Eva Maler. Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition). Technical report, October, World Wide Web Consortium, 2000.

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Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) - Version 1.0. 2000.

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XSL Transformations (XSLT) - Version 1.0. 2000.

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M. Wooldridge, N.R. Jennings, and D. Kinny. The Gaia Methodology for Agent-Oriented Analysis and Design. In: Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Nr: 3, Vol: 3, Pages: 285-312, 2000.

This article presents Gaia: a methodology for agent-oriented analysis and design. The Gaia methodology is both general, in that it is applicable to a wide range of multi-agent systems, and comprehensive, in that it deals with both the macro-level (societal) and the micro-level (agent) aspects of systems. Gaia is founded on the view of a multi-agent system as a computational organisation consisting of various interacting roles. We illustrate Gaia through a case study (an agent-based business process management system).

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Xiaolan Zhu, and Susan Gauch. Incorporating quality metrics in centralized/distributed information retrieval on the World Wide Web. In: Proceedings of the 23rd annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Researchand development in information retrieval, Pages: 288-295, July, 2000.

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Journal

B.C.M. Wondergem, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Matching Index Expressions for Information Retrieval. In: Information Retrieval Journal, Nr: 4, Vol: 2, 2000, To appear..

The INN system is a dynamic hypertext tool for searching and exploring the WWW. It uses a dynamically built ancillary layer to support easy interaction. This layer features the subexpressions of index expressions that are extracted from rendered documents. Currently, the INN system uses keyword based matching. The effectiveness of the INN system may be increased by using matching functions for index expressions. In the design of such functions, several constraints stemming from the INN must be taken into account. Important constraints are a limited response time and storage space, a focus on discriminating (dirent notions of) subexpressions for index expressions, and domain independency. With these contextual constraints in mind, several matching functions are designed and both theoretically and practically evaluated.

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J.J. Sarbo, J.I. Farkas, F.A. Grootjen, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Meaning Extraction from a Peircean Perspective. In: International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, Vol: 6, Pages: 209-227, 2000.

Meaning extraction from text documents is a form of information management. The approach suggested in this paper is based on Peirce's semiotic which, by virtue of its deeper foundation, provides us with an adequate modelling of the information content of language. We exemplify the potential of the Peircean approach by extracting the meaning of a sample English text.

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Book

J. Krogstie, and A. Sølvberg. Information Systems Engineering - Conceptual Modeling in a Quality Perspective. The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Stockholm, Norway, 2000.

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B.C.M. Wondergem. Compact and Tractable Descriptors for Information Discovery. University of Nijmegen, 2000, ISBN 906464831X.

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E.D. Schabell, E. Amrehn, J. Arndt, D. Bennin, M. Cathcart, R. Higson, C. Laking, R. Lewis, M. MacIsaac, S. Matuszewski, E. Ong, and H. Mertlens. Linux for S/390. September, IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organizaiton, Poughkeepsie, NY, 2000, 0-7384-1914-1.

The strengths of S/390 are well known: rock-solid reliability, the ability to run multiple diverse workloads, and highly scalable technology make S/390 an ideal choice for hosting key e-business applications. Now Linux has joined the S/390 family of operating systems, bringing a wealth of open source applications, middle-ware, and trained developers to help you respond to your business challenges quicker than ever before. This IBM Redbook is aimed at beginners and intermediate Linux users with a S/390 operating system background. It covers Linux for S/390 Marist distribution (2.2.15) and a pre-release of the SuSE Linux for S/390 distribution. At the time of writing, there was no distribution available from TurboLinux. The first four chapters offer an overview of Linux's origin, how it fits into the IBM strategy, what open source means, and why using Linux for S/390 is significant from an IBM perspective. These chapters are also suitable as a management overview. The main part of the book will help you install Linux for S/390 in different environments. It discusses basic system administration tasks that can help you manage your Linux for S/390 system. It also introduces a wide range of services, such as Samba, NFS, and Apache. You will learn what each service is, what it is capable of, and how to install it. The services are not covered in detail, since they are very comprehensive; however, sources for more detailed information are documented.

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Chapter

A.T. Arampatzis, Th.P. van der Weide, C.H.A. Koster, and P. van Bommel. Linguistically-motivated Information Retrieval. Pages: 201-222, Marcel Dekker, New York, New York, USA, 2000.

This article discusses a retrieval schema that attempts to overcome the problems originat- ing from the keyword retrieval hypothesis and linguistic variation. After discussing some of the most important attempts made to deal with linguistic variation, followed by as sicussion of the key aspects of a linguistically motivated retrieval system. Starting from a phrase retrieval hypothesis - a naive extension of the keyword retrieval hypothesis - we will address a suitable for IR representation of phrases. Possible regularizations of natural language will be outlined. The weighting of phrasal indexing terms and their matching is discussed. An example architecture of such a linguistically motivated retrieval system is depicted.

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F.C. Berger, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Characterization hierarchy containing augmented characterizations. Pages: 1-21, Marcel Dekker, New York, New York, USA, 2000.

The focus of this paper is information retrieval and filtering in traditional retrieval contexts as well as on the Internet. Information Modelling techniques (e.g. NIAM, ER, OO) are used for the characterization of documents to be retrieved. This brings together the worlds of Information Modelling (IM) and Information Retrieval (IR, or: document retrieval). Although IM is in most cases used for traditional (non-document) databases such as relational databases (e.g. SQL), these techniques can be applied to IR in order to obtain different characterization levels for information objects.

The level of index expressions is discussed in detail and extended, yielding augmented index expressions containing additional (semantic) information. This is done in the following context. A searcher in a list of phrases serving as an index to documents often has problems finding the right words when the information sought for has to be described. Offering alternative phrasings and pointing to related concepts in the index could be a great help in this difficult process of query formulation.

Usually the index is obtained by characterizing documents. This paper describes the addition of semantic relations to the index. Various strategies for relating nodes in an index are discussed, and criteria for adding new index entries are introduced. The effects of adding relations on the process of offering support during the formulation process are treated as well.

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Conference

Avi Arampatzis, Jean Beney, C. H. A. Koster, and Th.P. van der Weide. Incrementality, Half-Life, and Threshold Optimization, for Adaptive Document Filtering. In: The Nineth Text REtrieval Conference (TREC-9), Edited by: Ellen M. Voorhees, and Donna K. Harman. November 1, Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, 2000.

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A.T. Arampatzis, Th.P. van der Weide, C.H.A. Koster, and P. van Bommel. An Evaluation of Linguistically-motivated Indexing Schemes. In: Proceedings of the 22nd BCS-IRSG Colloquium on IR Research, Pages: 34-45, April, 2000.

In this article, we describe a number of indexing experiments based on indexing terms other than simple keywords. These experiments were conducted as one step in validating a linguistically-motivated indexing model. The problem is important but not new. What is new in this approach is the variety of schemes evaluated. It is important since it should not only help to overcome the well-known problems of bag-of-words representations, but also the difficulties raised by non-linguistic text simplification techniques such as stemming, stop-word deletion, and term selection. Our approach in the selection of terms is based on part-of-speech tagging and shallow parsing. The indexing schemes evaluated vary from simple keywords to nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, adjacent word-pairs, and head-modifier pairs. Our findings apply to Information Retrieval and most of related areas.

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A.T. Arampatzis, Th.P. van der Weide, C.H.A. Koster, and P. van Bommel. Term Selection for Filtering based on Distribution of Terms over Time. In: Proceedings of the RIAO`2000 Conference, April, 2000.

In this article we investigate the use of time distributions in retrieval tasks. Specifically, we introduce a novel term selection method, namely Term Occurrence Uniformity (TOU), based on the hypothesis that terms which occur uniformly in time are more valuable than others. Our empirical evaluation so far has neither proved nor disproved this hypothesis. However, results are promising and suggest the need for a deeper theoretical and empirical investigation. Our current concern is filtering, but this line of research may easily be extended to other retrieval tasks which involve temporally-dependent data.

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A.T. Arampatzis, J. Beney, C.H.A. Koster, and Th.P. van der Weide. Incrementality, Half-Life, and Threshold Optimization for Adaptive Document Filtering. In: Proceedings of the Nineth Text REtrieval Conference (TREC-9), November, Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, 2000.

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J.I. Farkas, and J.J. Sarbo. A Logical Ontology. In: Working with Conceptual Structures: Contributions to ICCS2000, Edited by: G. Stumme. Pages: 138-151, Shaker-Verlag, Darmstadt, Germany, EU, 2000.

We make an attempt to develop a Peircean ontology that is presupposed by propositional logic. The result of this can be seen as a first step towards linking Peirce's semiotic to his logic of relatives. Familiarity with Peirce's semiotic can be useful, but the thesis of this paper is intelligible without such a background.

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F.A. Grootjen. Employing semantical issues in syntactical navigation. In: Proceedings of the 22nd BCS-IRSG Colloquium on IR Research, Pages: 22-33, 2000.

Given their simple nature, the success of keyword based retrieval systems is astonishing. Although these methods seemingly only process words (and their word counts), they rely on and credit most of their success to the keyword's implicit semantics. In fact each keyword is a representation of a thought, or concept. Due to recent developments in NLP it is possible to use bigger syntactical units (like noun phrases) for IR purposes. Simply using these units as 'large keywords' drastically boosts precision, but due to their rare occurrences they really hurt recall. A way to deal with this problem is to add subphrases. The obtained phrases can be structured into a lithoid which forms an ideal starting point for feedback mechanisms like Query By Navigation. This paper will even go further and tries to involve the phrases' support into the structure using a mathematical theory called formal concept analysis. The resulting concept lattice shows great similarity to the original lithoid and, since it consists of formal concepts, leads the way to handle phrase semantics.

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F.A. Grootjen. A Semantical Twist to Syntactical Navigation. In: Proceedings of the eleventh international workshop on Data Base and Expert Systems Applications, Greenwich, United Kingdom, EU, Edited by: P.D. Bruza, F. Crestani, and M. Lalmas. Pages: 523-528, IEEE, Los Alamitos, California, USA, 2000.

Given their simple nature, the success of keyword based retrieval systems is astonishing. Although these methods seemingly only process words (and their word counts), they rely on and credit most of their success to the keyword's implicit semantics. In fact each keyword is a representa-tion of a thought, or concept. Recent developments in NLP make it possible to use bigger syntactical units (like noun-phrases) for IR purposes. The obtained phrases (and their subphrases) can be structured into a lithoid which forms an ideal starting point for feedback mechanisms like 'Query By Navigation'. This paper will go even further and tries to involve the phrases' support into the structure using a mathematical theory called 'formal concept analysis'. The resulting concept lattice shows great similarity to the original lithoid and, since it consists of formal concepts, it leads the way to handle phrase semantics.

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Jonathan L. Herlocker, Joseph A. Konstan, and J. Riedl. Explaining collaborative filtering recommendations. In: Proceedings of Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Pages: 241-250, 2000.

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S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers. A Functionalist Approach to Conceptualisation. , RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany, EU, 2000.

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S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers, and H. Weigand. Meta-communication in the Language Action Perspective. , RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany, EU, 2000.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper, H. Bosma, S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers, and R.D.T. Janssen. An Alignment Perspective on Architecture-driven Information Systems Engineering. In: Proceedings of the Second National Architecture Congres, Edited by: D.B.B. Rijsenbrij. November, 2000.

This article provides a discussion on architecture-driven information systems engineering from a Business-IT alignment perspective. We do so by trying to develop a more fundamental understanding of the essence of Business-IT alignment. We try to find this understanding by viewing Business-IT alignment as the alignment between two co-evolving systems. An alignment that should take place at the strategic, the tactical as well as the operational level of these systems.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper, H. Bosma, S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers, and R.D.T. Janssen. Towards an Information Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge. In: Proceedings of the Second National Architecture Congres, Edited by: D.B.B. Rijsenbrij. November, 2000.

Though there may be millions of professionals worldwide acting as a designer, architect, or engineer in the design, realisation, and implementation of information systems, there is not yet a well established and clearly identified body of knowledge that can be said to define the profession. In this article, we present the idea of developing an information systems engineering body of knowledge. Such a body of knowledge could play a pivotal role in the further professionalisation of our discipline. The approach we take is an organic approach in which we first aim to gather a library with significant knowledge, demarcating the field, and then move on to integrate this into a consistent body of knowledge.

We also realise that this effort can not be done in isolation. This article should therefore also be regarded as an invitation for additional participants.

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A. Stam, and H.A. (Erik) Proper. Improving Architectures by Simulation and Animation. In: Proceedings of the Second National Architecture Congres, Edited by: D.B.B. Rijsenbrij. November, 2000.

In this paper we present our ideas about using simulation and animation techniques to improve the understanding and the quality of architectures. We discuss the meaning of validation and verification for architectures and the value of simulation and animation in this context. We give an outline of what is needed in order to simulate systems based on their architecture and what can be accomplished by doing so. A small example is given to illustrate our ideas.

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Proceedings of Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. 2000.

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B.C.M. Wondergem, M. van Uden, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. INdex Navigator for Searching and Exploring the WWW. In: Proceedings of the Conferentie Informatiewetenschap (CIW`2000), April, 2000.

Searching information from a large and dynamic information space causes several problems, concerning, for instance, dynamic and vague information needs, too broad queries, and correctness and sensibility of descriptors. These problems may be attacked by navigational query The INN is a dynamic electronic service system for the WWW.

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Reports

J.G. Beney, N. Gietema, and C.H.A. Koster. Strength Normalisation and Weight Initialisation for Winnow Algorithm. Technical report, University of Nijmegen, 2000, To appear..

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A.L. de Groot, and J.J.M. Hooman. Analyzing the Light Control System with PVS. Technical report: CSI-R0017, November, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

The interactive theorem prover PVS is used to formalize the user needs of the Light Control system. The Light Control System is meant to control the room lighting in an office building. We handle a simplified system that controls the lighting in a single room. First the system is modeled at a high level of abstraction, in terms of properties the user can observe. After resolving ambiguities and conflicts, a refinement is defined, using dimmable light actuators. The dimmable light actuator is a model of ""real"" lights with ideal behavior. Correctness of the refinement has been proved in PVS, under the assumption that there are no internal delays. Next these internal delays are taken into account, leading to a new notion of delay-refinement which allows abstraction from delays such that systems with delays can be seen as an approximation of an undelayed specification.

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W.O.D. Griffioen, and F.W. Vaandrager. A Theory of Normed Simulations. Technical report: CSI-R0013, July, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

In existing simulation proof techniques, a single step in a lower-level specification may be simulated by an extended execution fragment in a higher-level one.As a result, it is cumbersome to mechanize these techniques using general purpose theorem provers.Moreover, it is undecidable whether a given relation is a simulation, even if tautology checking is decidable for the underlying specification logic.This paper introduces various types of normed simulations.In a normed simulation, each step in a lower-level specification can be simulated by at most one step in the higher-level one, for any related pair of states.We show that, under some reasonable assumptions, it is decidable whether a given relation is a normed forward simulation, provided tautology checking is decidable for the underlying logic.We also prove that, at the semantic level, normed forward and backward simulations together form a complete proof method for establishing behavior inclusion, provided that the higher-level specification has finite invisible nondeterminism.Apart from their pleasant theoretical properties, normed simulations also have turned out to be quite useful as a vehicle for the formalization of refinement proofs via theorem provers.

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M. Huisman, B.P.F. Jacobs, and J.A.G.M. van den Berg. A Case Study in Class Library Verification: Java's Vector Class. Technical report: CSI-R0007, March, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This paper presents a verification of an invariant property for the Vector class from Java's standard library (API). The property says (essentially) that the actual size of a vector is less than or equal to its capacity. It is shown that this �safety'' or �data integrity'' property is maintained by all methods of the Vector class, and that it holds for all objects created by the constructors of the Vector class. The verification of the Vector class invariant is done with the proof tool PVS. It is based on a semantics of Java in higher order logic. The latter is incorporated in a special purposecompiler, the LOOP tool, which translates Java classes intological theories. It has been applied to the Vector class for this case study.The actual verification takes into account the object-orientedcharacter of Java: (non-final) methods may always beoverridden, so that one cannot rely on a particular implementation. Instead, one has to reason from method specifications in such cases.This project demonstrates the feasibility of tool-assisted verification of non-trivial properties for non-trivial Java classes.

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B.P.F. Jacobs. A Formalisation of Java's Exception Mechanism. Technical report: CSI-R0015, October, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This paper examines Java's exception mechanism, and formalises its main operations (throw, try-catch and try-catch-finally) in a type-theoretic settting. This formalisation uses coalgebras for modeling statements and expressions, thus providing a convenient setting for handling the various termination options that may arise in exception handling (closely following the Java Language Specification). This semantics of exceptions is used within the LOOP project on Java program verification. It is illustrated in two example verifications in PVS.

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B.P.F. Jacobs, and E. Poll. A Logic for the Java Modeling Language JML. Technical report: CSI-R0018, November, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This paper describes a specialised logic for proving specifications in the Java Modeling Language (JML). JML is an interface specification language for Java. It allows assertions like invariants, constraints, pre- and post-conditions, and modifiable clauses as annotations to Java classes, in a design-by-contract style. Within the LOOP project at the University of Nijmegen JML is used for specification and verification of Java programs. A special compiler has been developed which translates Java classes together with their JML annotations into logical theories for a theorem prover (PVS or Isabelle). The logic for JML that will be described here consists of tailor-made proof rules in the higher order logic of the back-endtheorem prover for verifying translated JML specifications. The rules efficiently combine partial and total correctness (like in Hoare logic) for all possible termination modes in Java, in a single correctness formula.

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B.P.F. Jacobs. Many-Sorted Coalgebraic Modal Logic: a Model-theoretic Study. Technical report: CSI-R0020, December, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This paper gives a semantical underpinning for a many-sorted modal logic associated with certain dynamical systems, like transition systems, automata or classes in object-oriented languages. These systems will be described as coalgebras of so-called polynomial functors, built up from constants and identities, using products, coproducts and powersets. The semantical account involves Booleanalgebras with operators indexed by polynomial functors, called MBAOs, for Many-sorted Boolean Algebras with Operators, combining standard (categorical) models of modal logic and of many-sorted predicate logic. In this setting we will see Lindenbaum MBAO models as initial objects, and canonical coalgebraic models of maximallyconsistent sets of formulas as final objects. They will be used to (re)prove completeness results, and Hennessey-Milner style characterisation results for the modal logic, first established byR��iger.

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E. Poll, J.A.G.M. van den Berg, and B.P.F. Jacobs. Formal Specification of the JavaCard API in JML: the APDU class. Technical report: CSI-R0016, October, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This paper reports on an effort to increase the reliabilityof JavaCard-based smart cards by means of formal specification and verification of \mbox{JavaCard} source code. As a first step, formal interface specifications,written in the specification language JML, have been developed for all the classes that make up the JavaCard API. These specifications are ``lightweight'' in the sense that they are incomplete and specify only some aspects of the API, but they already provide a useful addition to the existing informal API specifications. Moreover, the fact that these specification are written in a formal language makes them amenable to tool support, for verificationpurposes. As an illustration, the JML specifications of the APDU (Application Protocol Data Unit) class in the JavaCard API are discussed in detail.

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D.P.L. Simons, and M.I.A. Stoelinga. Mechanical Verification of the IEEE 1394aRoot Contention Protocol using Uppaal2k. Technical report: CSI-R0009, May, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This paper reports a mechanical verification of the IEEE 1394 root contention protocol. This is an industrial leader election protocol, in which timing parameters play an essential role.In this case study, we used the Uppaal2k tool and stepwise verification to investigate the timing constraints on the parameters which are necessary and sufficient for correct protocol operation. A manual verification of this protocol using I/O automata has been published in [19]. We improve the communication model from that paper andby analyzing large numbers of protocol instances with Uppaal, we derive the required timing constraints.

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F.W. Vaandrager. Quality of Software - Formal Methods and Tools. Technical report: CSI-N0001, March, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

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J.A.G.M. van den Berg, and B.P.F. Jacobs. The LOOP compiler for Java and JML. Technical report: CSI-R0019, December, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This paper describes the architecture of the LOOP tool, which is used for reasoning about sequential Java. The LOOP tool translates Java and JML (a specification language tailored to Java) classes into their semantics in higher order logic. It serves as a front-end to a theorem prover in which the actual verification of the desired properties takes place. Also, the paper discusses issues related to logical theory generation.

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J.A.G.M. van den Berg, B.P.F. Jacobs, and E. Poll. Formal Specification and Verification of JavaCard's Application Identifier Class. Technical report: CSI-R0014, September, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This note discusses a verification in PVS of the AID(Application Identifier) class from JavaCard's API. The properties that are verified are formulated in the interface specification language JML. This language is also used to express the properties that are assumed about the native methods from the Util class that are used in the AID class.

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D.C. van Leijenhorst. ""Symmetric functions, Latin Squares. Technical report: CSI-R0011, June, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

We shall present a complete, elementary derivation of MacMahon's beautiful formula for the number of Latin squares of order n. Part of the proof, dealing with the combinatorial theory of Hammond differential operators, follows the lines of an ancient ""Scriptum"" by Van der Corput. Some implementation issues in Maple will be discussed briefly.

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D.C. van Leijenhorst. Some Software For Symmetric Functions . Technical report: CSI-R0012, June, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

Some Maple software is presented that was used in a study of the symmetric functions: in particular, MacMahon's method of counting Latin squares, anditerative behavior. Some background of various algorithms has been provided as well.

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H. Wupper, and H. Meijer. Wat is informatica eigenlijk?. Technical report: CSI-R0008, March, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

Begripsverwarring op het gebied van de informatie- en communicatietechnologie leidt ertoe dat beslissers hoofd- en bijzaken door elkaar halen en daardoor niet goed weten welke rol de informatica in onze maatschappij moet spelen. Dit artikel analyseert waar het eigenlijk om gaat zonder in te gaan op bijzaken en de waan van de dag.Het bespreekt wat er komt kijken bij het professioneel ontwikkelen van ICT-systemen. Het geeft de belangrijkste aspecten en hun relaties weer in een diagram. Het stelt tevens een consistente terminologie voor. De problemen waar het vooral om gaat zijn die van de geschiktheid en de complexiteit van de systemen. Het is de taak van wetenschappelijk onderzoek de ontwikkeling te ondersteunen met theorie�n, talen, methoden en gereedschappen.Een maatschappij die geen technologische achterstand wil oplopen, heeft beide kanten van de in formatica nodig: een ingenieursdiscipline met een gedegen opleiding en een exacte wetenschap die voor deze ingenieursdiscipline het nodige fundament ontwikkelt.

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P.M. Achten, and M. Wierich. A Tutorial to the CLEAN Object I/O Library. Technical report: CSI-R0003, February, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

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A. Fehnker. Bounding and heuristics in forward reachability algorithms. Technical report: CSI-R0002, February, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

Recently timed automata models have been used to solve realistic scheduling problems. In this paper we want to establish the relation between timed automata and job shop scheduling problems. The timed automata models of the scheduling problems can serve as input for a forward reachability checker. In contrast to job shop algorithms theforward reachability algorithms will usually not yield an optimalsolution. There are also only few ways to direct the exploration of the state space. Starting from job shop problem we will describe how forward reachability can be equipped with two concepts from branch and bound methods: heuristics and bounding. This extended algorithm is then applicable to all kinds of timed automata models.

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M. Huisman, and B.P.F. Jacobs. Inheritance in Higher Order Logic: Modeling and Reasoning. Technical report: CSI-R0004, February, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This paper describes a way of modeling inheritance(in object-oriented programming languages) in higher order logic. This particular approach is used in the LOOP project forreasoning about Java classes, with the proof tools PVS andISABELLE. It relies on nested interface types to capturethe superclasses, fields, methods, and constructors of classes, together with suitable casting functions incorporating the difference between hiding of fields and overriding of methods. This leads to the proper handling of late binding, as illustrated in several examples.

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E. Poll, J.A.G.M. van den Berg, and B.P.F. Jacobs. Specification of the JavaCard API in JML. Technical report: CSI-R0005, March, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This paper reports on an effort to increase the reliabilityof JavaCard-based smart cards by means of formal specification and verification of JavaCard source code.As a first step, lightweight formal interface specifications,written in the specification language JML, have been developed for all the classes in the JavaCard API (version 2.1). They make many of the implicit assumptionsunderlying the current implementation explicit, and thusfacilitate the use of this API and increase the reliability of the code that is based on it. Furthermore, the formal specifications are amenable to tool support, for verificationpurposes.

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J. Simons, A.T. Arampatzis, B.C.M. Wondergem, L.R.B. Schomaker, P. van Bommel, E.C.M. Hoenkamp, Th.P. van der Weide, and C.H.A. Koster. PROFILE - A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Information Discovery. Technical report: CSI-R0001, January, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2000.

This document describes the Profile project, a multi-disciplinary project aiming at the development of a proactive information filter for dynamic information environments. The goal of this paper is threefold. First, the suitability of an agent-based architecture for the Profile project is evaluated. Second, this article provides an overview of the research done in the Profile project. Third, it describes the integration of this research, which has led to the implementation of a prototype. The architecture and workings of the prototype are illustrated.

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Professional

E.-J. Elferich, H.A. (Erik) Proper, and A.P. de Vries. KennisIntegratie onder Architectuur. In: ID Nieuws, Vol: 6, Pages: 10-12, March, 2000, In Dutch.

In veel organisaties speelt kennis tegenwoordig een steeds belangrijkere rol. Bedrijfsprocessen worden steeds kennisintensiever. Dit betekent dat het voor de uitvoerenden van deze processen belangrijker wordt dat zij op het juiste moment over de juiste kennis beschikken. Het begrip kenniswerker staat voor al die werknemers die kennis toepassen, aanleveren of managen. Er zijn dus meerdere soorten kenniswerkers te onderscheiden, respectievelijk de kennisgebruikers, kennisleveranciers en kennismanagers.

Voor de IT-wereld is de uitdaging natuurlijk om applicaties te ontwikkelen die kenniswerkers kunnen ondersteunen bij het toepassen, aanleveren en managen van kennis ten behoeve van hun werkzaamheden.

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