IRIS Research Publications


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Journal

F.C. Berger, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Ranking strategies for navigation-based query formulation. In: Journal of intelligent information systems, Nr: 1, Vol: 12, 1999.

Navigating through a hypermedia retrieval system bears the problem of selecting an item from a large number of options which are available to continue the trajectory. Ranking these options according to some criterion is a method to ease the task of navigation. A number of ranking strategies have already been proposed. This paper presents a formalization of the concept of ranking, and of the aforementioned strategies. Furthermore we propose two strategies which allow a personalized approach to ranking.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper, and P.D. Bruza. What is Information Discovery About?. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Nr: 9, Vol: 50, Pages: 737-750, July, 1999.

The Internet has led to an increase in the quantity and diversity of information available for searching. Furthermore, users are bombarded by a constant barrage of electronic messages in the form of e-mail, faxes, etc. This has led to a plethora of search engines, ``intelligent'' agents, etc. that aim to help users in their quest for relevant information, or shield them against irrelevant information. All these systems aim to identify the potentially relevant information in amongst a large pool of available information.

No unifying underlying theory for information discovery systems exists as yet. The aim of this article is to provide a logic-based framework for information discovery, and relate this to the traditional field of information retrieval. Furthermore, the often ignored user receives special emphasis. In information discovery, a good understanding of a user's (sometimes hidden) needs and beliefs is essential.

We will develop a logic-based approach to express the mechanics of information discovery, while the pragmatics are based on an analysis of the underlying informational semantics of information carriers and information needs of users.

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Conference

J.J. Sarbo. Formal conceptual structure in language. In: Proceedings of Computing Anticipatory Systems (CASYS`98), Edited by: D.M. Dubois. Pages: 289-300, AIP Conference Proceedings 465, Woodbury, New York, USA, 1999.

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G.Y. Debrock, J.I. Farkas, and J.J. Sarbo. Syntax from a Peircean perspective. In: 5th International Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering, Edited by: P. Sandrini. Pages: 180-189, 1999.

One of the inconveniences of language is that in every day discourse we never know what someone else is speaking of until he has finished speaking. This feature is in some sense baffling. Yet, in another way, it is a feature which characterizes almost every sort of action, or indeed, any sort of gesture. The only reason why we may not be disturbed by it, is that, as is the case for so many areas of human life, sequences of words or of gestures have become customary within given situations. The better we are acquainted with a person, the more we are able to predict what a particular gesture may lead to. The same goes for language. People are wont to use expressions and we often need only to hear the first word, to know exactly what will follow. Nevertheless, the fact remains that the development of sentences and of discourses has an element of unpredictibility. The premise of this paper is the paradox that the utter unpredictibility of language is nevertheless governed by laws.

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J.I. Farkas, and J.J. Sarbo. A Peircean framework of syntactic structure. In: ICCS`99, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, Edited by: W. Tepfenhart, and W. Cyre. Lecture Notes in AI, Vol: 1640, Pages: 112-126, Springer, 1999.

A semiotic framework for the syntactic structure of language is introduced. From properties of syntactic signs a parsing algorithm is derived. Using English as an example it is shown that, by means of its syntactic structures, the English language implements signs, analogous to those of Peirce's semiotic triads.

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F.A. Grootjen, V. Kamphuis, and J.J. Sarbo. Coordination and multi-relational modelling: `X and X` revisited. In: Traitement automatique des langues naturelles (TALN), Edited by: P. Amsili. Pages: 345-351, 1999.

A relational model of language is developed which unifies traditional features of X-bar theory with lexicon based modelling. It is argued that such a model provides the appropriate basis for handling problematic cases of non-constituent coordination and gapping. A prototype implementation is discussed on the basis of six representative examples, corpus-based.

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J.J. Sarbo. Formal Conceptual Structure in Language. In: AIP Conference Proceedings of the American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, New York, USA, Edited by: D.M. Dubois. Pages: 289-300, Springer, 1999.

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Th.P. van der Weide. IR bijdrage aan Polyautomatiseringsboekje. PBNA, 1999, In Dutch.

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Reports

A.T. Arampatzis, Th.P. van der Weide, C.H.A. Koster, and P. van Bommel. Text Filtering using Linguistically-motivated Indexing Terms. Technical report: CSI-R9901, January, Computing Science Institute, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, EU, 1999.

In this article we describe a number of text filtering experiments based on indexing terms other than simple keywords. These experiments were conducted as a first step of validating a phrase-based retrieval model. Our approach in the selection of indexing terms was based on a part-of-speech tagger and shallow parsing. Different types of indexing terms were evaluated, including keywords, nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, adjacent word-pairs and head-modifier pairs. Furthermore, the effect of lemmatizing terms was investigated. Evaluation was done with three utility-based measures and average set precision. We managed to obtain experimental evidence that the phrase-based retrieval model performs better than keyword-based models. Our experiments showed that an indexing set of keywords can be reduced by retaining only some certain part-of-speech categories without any substantial negative impact in performance; in some cases the effectiveness even improved. Furthermore, we found that lemmatization can produce confusion between nouns and verbs decreasing effectiveness, while overall it is beneficial especially for phrasal terms.

Keywords: Text-Filtering, Natural Language Processing, Indexing, Rocchio, Binary Terms, Lemmatization.

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B.C.M. Wondergem, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Effective and Efficient Descriptors for Information Discovery. Technical report, University of Nijmegen, 1999.

The effectiveness and efficiency of searches for relevant documents strongly depend on key features of the descriptor language supported by the retrieval system. Effectiveness, for instance, is limited by the expressiveness of the descriptors. In addition, system efficiency is proportional to tractability. Furthermore, user effort is relative to comprehensibility and compactness. From a formulation point of view, compactness allows a high degree of integration, combining several occurrences of an analogous concept in a single expression. A proper descriptor language for information discovery should thus find a workable balance between these features.

Boolean index expressions (BIEs) are proposed as balanced descriptors for the communication of information needs. Compared to many other descriptor languages, an advantage of BIEs is their compactness, offering the opportunity to convey much information in a succinct way. The goal of this article is to investigate compactness of BIEs. For instance, we analyse how compactness is brought about in BIEs and how it can be effectively measured. In addition, two classes of BIEs are investigated that illustrate the bounds on the compactness of BIEs: minimal and maximal BIEs. The bounds are explicitly derived and illustrated by generic examples. Furthermore, we report on experiments that ascertain the merit of minimal and maximal BIEs.

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B.C.M. Wondergem, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Counting and Generating (Boolean) Index Expressions. Technical report, University of Nijmegen, 1999, Technical Report CSI-R99xx.

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Professional

S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers, and H.A. (Erik) Proper. Knowledge Discovery - De zoektocht naar verhulde en onthulde kennis. In: DB/Magazine, Nr: 7, Vol: 10, Pages: 21-25, November, 1999, In Dutch.

Menigeen zal bij het woord knowledge discovery wellicht denken aan technologieën zoals search engines, agent technologie, mining tools, meta-data standaarden, query talen/protocollen, etc. Naar onze mening bestaat knowledge discovery, net als kennismanagement, echter uit beduidend meer dan de onderliggende technologie. In dit artikel benaderen we knowledge discovery om deze redenen dan ook juist vanuit een conceptueel perspectief.

Het eerste doel van dit artikel is het verkrijgen van een beter begrip van knowledge discovery. Wat is het precies en wat kan ik ermee? Dit zullen we doen door referentie modellen op te stellen (in termen van een paradigma) die de essentiële mechanismen achter knowledge discovery op een conceptueel niveau weergeven. Deze referentiemodellen kunnen vervolgens tevens gebruikt worden om verschillende voor knowledge discovery relevante technologieën te positioneren: Waar past wat?

Op basis van de referentiemodellen en de link naar de onderliggende technologie, kan een applicatiearchitect vervolgens knowledge discovery toepassingen ontwerpen en inpassen in bestaande applicatiearchitecturen.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper. Een derde dimensie voor informatiemodelleren. In: DB/Magazine, Nr: 3, Vol: 10, Pages: 52-55, May, 1999, In Dutch.

De vraag hoe om te gaan met complexiteit is een vraag die op verschillende plekken in een software ontwikkelproces terugkomt. In dit artikel richten we ons op de complexiteit zoals deze tijdens de eerste fasen van de software ontwikkeling cyclus (de analyse fase) in de informatiemodellen naar voren komt. Het doel van dit artikel is om de lezer een simpele en praktische aanpak aan te reiken voor het omgaan met complexiteit in informatiemodellen.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper. ISPL toegepast - Aanbestedingen van grootschalige migratieprojecten. In: ID Nieuws, Vol: 3, Pages: 4-8, March, 1999, In Dutch.

Evolutie is een constante! Deze schijnbare tegenstelling is een bondige omschrijving van de condities waaronder veel ondernemingen tegenwoordig opereren. De liberalisering van markten, het verminderen van protectionisme, de privatisering van staatsbedrijven, de toenemende wereldwijze concurrentie, grensoverschrijdende bedrijfsfusies, het ontstaan van nieuwe economische blokken, de invoering van gemeenschappelijke munteenheden, zijn allemaal aspecten die bijdragen aan de dynamiek van het huidige ondernemersklimaat.

Dit soort ontwikkelingen heeft organisaties er inmiddels toe gebracht om een ruime schakering aan migratieprojecten op te starten. Projecten die allemaal tot doel hebben om door het ICT-dilemma heen te breken, en bestaande informatiesystemen beter voor te bereiden op de toekomst. Dit maakt dergelijke migratieprojecten ook van toenemend strategisch belang. Wanneer het aantal lopende (migratie)projecten binnen een organisatie toeneemt, wordt de roep om adequaat management van de aanbesteding en uitvoering van dergelijke projecten groter. Als deze projecten dan ook nog van strategisch belang zijn, wordt deze roep nog verder versterkt. Het management van de uitbesteding en de uitvoering van migratieprojecten vereist richtlijnen voor zowel de klanten als de leveranciers van migratiediensten.

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B.C.M. Wondergem, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Information Retrieval, een uitdagend onderzoeksgebied. In: Informatie Professional, Nr: 10, Vol: 3, Pages: 20-25, October, 1999, In Dutch.

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