IRIS Research Publications


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Journal

B. van Gils, H.A. (Erik) Proper, and P. van Bommel. A conceptual model for Information Suppy. In: Data & Knowledge Engineering, Vol: 51, Pages: 189-222, 2004.

This paper introduces a conceptual model for information supply. The model is based on the notion that similar information can be conveyed by multiple representations. Hence, we define that information services provide access to several representations. The relation between these two concepts is provided by what we call features. Furthermore, we recognize the fact that information services are interrelated by means of relations. We informally introduce this model using the ER-notation, and provide a formalization as well. Last but not least, the notion of transformations is introduced. Using transformations we are able to transform representations to a type that is both acceptable and useful for the user of an IR-system.

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T. Heskes. On the uniqueness of loopy belief propagation fixed points. In: Neural Computation, Vol: 16, Pages: 2379-2413, 2004.

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H. Jonkers, M.M. Lankhorst, R. van Buuren, S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers, M. Bonsangue, and L. van der Torre. Concepts for Modeling Enterprise Architectures. In: International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems, Nr: 3, Vol: 13, Pages: 257-288, 2004.

A coherent description of an enterprise architecture provides insight, enables communication among stakeholders and guides complicated change processes. Unfortunately, so far no enterprise architecture description language exists that fully enables integrated enterprise modelling, because for each architectural domain, architects use their own modelling techniques and concepts, tool support, visualisation techniques, etc. In this paper we outline such an integrated language and we identify and study concepts that relate architectural domains. In our language concepts for describing the relationships between architecture descriptions at the business, application, and technology levels play a central role, related to the ubiquitous problem of business≠IT alignment, whereas for each architectural domain we conform to existing languages or standards such as UML. In particular, usage of services offered by one layer to another plays an important role in relating the behaviour aspects of the layers. The structural aspects of the layers are linked through the interface concept, and the information aspects through realisation relations.

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Gaag van der L.C Lucas, and A. Abu-Hanna. Bayesian networks in biomedicine and health-care. In: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Vol: 30, Pages: 201-214, 2004.

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P.J.F. Lucas. Bayesian analysis, pattern analysis and data mining in health care. In: Current Opinion in Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 10, Pages: 399-403, 2004.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper. Editor`s Introduction.. In: International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems, Nr: 3, Vol: 13, Pages: 211-212, 2004.

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G.E. Veldhuijzen van Zanten, S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers, and H.A. (Erik) Proper. System Development as a Rational Communicative Process. In: Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Nr: 4, Vol: 2, International Institute of Informatics and Systemics (IIIS), 2004.

System development is a process in which communication plays an important role. Requirements must be elicited from various stakeholders. But stakeholders also make decisions and must understand the consequences thereof. Different viewpoints must be reconciled, and agreements reached. An important assumption we make is that all actions in the development process are (or should be) based on rational decisions. The quest for rationality is a driving force behind the communication that takes place within the development process, because it raises issues that may otherwise have remained in the subconsciousness of stakeholders. We zoom in on the role of vagueness in communication, and argue that there are good reasons not to try and formalize things too soon in the development process. The purpose of this paper is to position our ongoing research, encourage discussion about the assumptions we make, and inspire novel approaches to system development. We work towards a comprehensive theory of rational system development, in which due attention is paid to development processes, communication, and the representations used therein.

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A.J. Hommersom, J.-J.Ch. Meyer, and E.P. de Vink. Update Semantics of Security Protocols. In: Synthese/Knowledge, Rationality and Action, 2004.

We present a model-theoretic approach for reasoning about security protocols, applying recent insights from dynamic epistemic logics. This enables us to describe exactly the subsequent epistemic states of the agents participating in the protocol, using Kripke models and transitions between these based on updates of the agents\' beliefs associated with steps in the protocol. As a case study we will consider the SRA Three Pass protocol and discuss the Wide-Mouthed Frog protocol.

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Book

F.A. Grootjen. A Pragmatic Approach to the Conceptualization of Language. Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, EU, 2004, ISBN 90-9018934-3.

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D.B.B. Rijsenbrij. Architectuur in de digitale wereld (versie nulpuntdrie). October, Nijmegen Institute for Information and Computing Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, EU, 2004, In Dutch, ISBN 90901882853.

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M. van Vliet. Software or Softwar? Dimensies en dilemma`s in softwareprojecten. March, Nijmegen Institute for Information and Computing Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, EU, 2004, In Dutch, ISBN 9090177582.

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Conference

P.J.M. Frederiks, and Th.P. van der Weide. Information Modeling: the process and the required competencies of its participants. In: 9th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB 2004), Manchester, United Kingdom, EU, Edited by: F. Meziane, and E. Mťtais. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol: 3136, Pages: 123-134, Springer, 2004.

In recent literature it is commonly agreed that the first phase of the software development process is still an area of concern. Furthermore, while software technology has been changed and improved rapidly, the way of working and managing this process have remained behind.

In this paper focus is on the process of information modeling, its quality and the required competencies of its participants (domain experts and system analysts). The competencies are discussed and motivated assuming natural language is the main communication vehicle between domain expert and system analyst. As a result, these competencies provide the clue for the effectiveness of the process of information modeling.

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A.I. Bleeker, H.A. (Erik) Proper, and S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers. The Role of Concept Management in System Development - A practical and a theoretical perspective. In: Forum proceedings of the 16th Conference on Advanced Information Systems 2004 (CAiSE 2004), Riga, Latvia, EU, Edited by: J. Grabis, A. Persson, and J. Stirna. Pages: 73-82, June, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Riga, Latvia, EU, 2004, ISBN 998497670X.

In this article we argue the need for proper concept management during the development of software systems. It is observed how, during system development, a lot of ``concept handling'' occurs without proper management. We define concept management as the deliberate activity of introducing, evolving and retiring concepts. It is argued that concept management plays an important role during the entire system development life cycle.

The notion of concept management is discussed and elaborated from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective. The latter perspective considers concept management in the context of the software development practice of a Dutch IT consultancy firm.

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J.I. Farkas, and J.J. Sarbo. Mathematica utens. , Edited by: H.D. Pfeiffer, H. Delugach, and K.E. Wolff. Pages: 29-42, Shaker-Verlag, Darmstadt, Germany, EU, 2004.

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M.A.J. van Gerven, and P.J.F. Lucas. Employing Maximum Mutual Information for Bayesian Classification. , Pages: 188-199, Springer-Verlag, 2004.

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M.A.J. van Gerven, and P.J.F. Lucas. Using Background Knowledge to Construct Bayesian Classifiers for Data-Poor Domains. , Pages: 269-282, Springer-Verlag, 2004.

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F.A. Grootjen, and Th.P. van der Weide. Effectiveness of Index Expressions. In: 9th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB 2004), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol: 3136, Pages: 171-181, 2004.

The incremental searcher satisfaction model for Information Retrieval has been introduced to capture the incremental information value of documents. In this paper, from various cognitive perspectives, searcher requirements are derived in terms of the increment function. Dirent approaches for the construction of increment functions are identified, such as the individual and the collective approach. Translating the requirements to similarity functions leads to the so-called base similarity features and the monotonicity similarity features. We show that most concrete similarity functions in IR, such as Inclusion, Jaccard.s, Dice.s, and Cosine coecient, and some other approaches to similarity functions, possess the base similarity features. The Inclusion coecientcient also satisfies the monotonicity features.

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A.J. Hommersom, P.J.F. Lucas, and M. Balser. Meta-level Verification of the Quality of Medical Guidelines using Interactive Theorem Proving. In: Logics in Artificial Intelligence, Proceedings of 9th European Conference, JELIA`04, LNCS, Vol: 3229, Pages: 654-666, 2004.

Requirements about the quality of medical guidelines can be represented using schemata borrowed from the theory of abductive diagnosis, using temporal logic to model the time-oriented aspects expressed in a guideline. In this paper, we investigate how this approach can be mapped to the facilities offered by a theorem proving system for program verification, KIV. It is shown that the reasoning that is required for checking the quality of a guideline can be mapped to such theorem-proving facilities. The medical quality of an actual guideline concerning diabetes mellitus 2 is investigated in this way, and some problems discovered are discussed.

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S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers, and H.A. (Erik) Proper. A Communicative Perspective on Second Order Information Systems. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on System Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, Baden-Baden, Germany, Edited by: G.E. Lasker. IIAS, 2004.

Abstract: We discuss our preliminary efforts to create a generic theoretical model of the socio-technical (information) systems that produce information systems (i.e. of second order information systems). We emphasize the importance of communication, language, and meta-language as factors in information system development processes and systems. Central are conversations related to the specification of information systems. Such conversations typically concern both formal and informal specification, and involve conceptual activities such as creation, adaptation, elicitation, informing, negotiation, validation, and committing. An integrated part of every specification process are conversations for conceptualization.

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R. Jurgelenaite, and P.J.F. Lucas. Exploiting Causal Independence in Large Bayesian Networks. In: Research and Developments in Intelligent Systems XXI, Edited by: M. Bramer, F. Coenen, and T. Allen. Pages: 157-170, Springer-Verlag, 2004.

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R. Jurgelenaite, and P.J.F. Lucas. Parameter Estimation in Large Causal Models. In: Proceedings of the 16th ECAI 2004, Edited by: R. L`opez de M`antaras, and L. Saitta. Pages: 1037-1038, IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EU, 2004.

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P.J.F. Lucas. A system for pacemaker treatment advice. In: Proceedings of the 16th ECAI 2004, Edited by: R. L`opez de M`antaras, and L. Saitta. Pages: 735-739, IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EU, 2004.

Previously it has been shown that the process of programming a cardiac pacemaker can be described in terms of the theory of diagnosis. A set-theoretical framework of diagnosis has been taken as the basis for the construction of a system for pacemaker programming that in its present form is capable of assisting cardiologists. The system has been made available commercially in 2003 by Vitatron for its C series pacemakers. In this paper, we discuss the practical requirement imposed by the clinical environment in which pacemaker programming takes place. The theory of diagnosis that has been used is briefly reviewed, after which we describe the capabilities and limitations of the implemented system. The paper is rounded off by some ideas for future development. As far as we know, this is the first system of its kind in the area of pacemakers commercially available.

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P.J.F. Lucas. Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Probabilistic Graphical Models 2004 (PGM`04). Lorentz Centre, Leiden, 2004.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper, and S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers. Concept Evolution in Information System Evolution. In: Forum proceedings of the 16th Conference on Advanced Information Systems 2004 (CAiSE 2004), Riga, Latvia, EU, Riga, Latvia, EU, Edited by: J. Gravis, A. Persson, and J. Stirna. Pages: 63-72, June, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Riga, Latvia, EU, 2004, ISBN 998497670X.

We look at the evolution of information systems from the perspective of the evolution of domain languages. Many analysis and design approaches for information systems base themselves on techniques involving some sort of natural language analysis. However, the view on language underlying these approaches ignores several issues concerning the nature of language. We discuss these issues, against the background of a more linguistically viable version of the standard notion of `universe of discourse', and the notion of `environment of discourse'. We finish by sketching a direction for tackling some of the problems indicated and some initial results, centring round better organised communication about concepts (`linguistic meta-communication' and `conceptualisation').

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H.A. (Erik) Proper, A.I. Bleeker, and S.J.B.A. (Stijn) Hoppenbrouwers. Object-Role Modelling as a Domain Modelling Approach. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Evaluating Modeling Methods for Systems Analysis and Design (EMMSAD`04), held in conjunctiun with the 16th Conference on Advanced Information Systems 2004 (CAiSE 2004),, Edited by: J. Grundspenkis, and M. Kirikova. Vol: 3, Pages: 317-328, June, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Riga, Latvia, EU, 2004, ISBN 9984976718.

This paper focuses on the potential role of the Object-Role Modeling (ORM) approach to information modeling for the task of domain modeling. Domain modeling concerns obtaining and modeling the language (concepts, terminologies, ontologies) used by stakeholders to talk about a domain. Achieving conceptual clarity and consensus among stakeholders is an important yet often neglected part of system development, and requirements engineering in particular.

This paper starts out with a brief discussion on the importance of domain modeling in system development. This is followed by an outline of the activities involved in proper domain modeling. We will then discuss why the ORM approach is, in principle, a good candidate for the tasks involved in domain modeling. This is further substantiated by a more detailed evaluation, both from a theoretical and a practical perspective.

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J.J. Sarbo. Towards a new world-ontology. , Pages: 51-58, 2004.

A crucial problem of knowledge representation is that it has to be formal and informal at the same time. Here, formal refers to knowledge as a mathematical concept which is thought, and informl to knowledge as something which is experienced, i.e. a real world phenomenon. This paper is an attempt to reconcile these potentially contradictory conditions. Our aim is to show that a cognitively based formal representation may exist, underlying traditional (formal) ontology, which may uniformly characterize the different domains of human knowledge like logic, language, mathematics, etc. We derive such a representation from the properties of cognition and signification, and elaborate its application in propositional logic and (briefly) in syntax.

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J.J. Sarbo, and J.I. Farkas. Towards a Theory of Meaning Extraction. , Edited by: H.D. Pfeiffer, H. Delugach, and K.E. Wolff. Pages: 55-68, Shaker-Verlag, Darmstadt, Germany, EU, 2004.

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B. van Gils, H.A. (Erik) Proper, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. Transformations in Information Supply. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Web Information Systems Modelling (WISM`04), held in conjunctiun with the 16th Conference on Advanced Information Systems 2004 (CAiSE 2004), Riga, Latvia, EU, Edited by: J. Grundspenkis, and M. Kirikova. Vol: 3, Pages: 60-78, June, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Riga, Latvia, EU, 2004, ISBN 9984976718.

In this article, we present a model for transformation of resources in information supply. These transformations allow us to reason more flexibly about information supply, and in particular its heterogeneous nature. They allow us to change the form (e.g. report, abstract, summary) and format (e.g. PDF, DOC, HTML) of data resources found on the Web. In a retrieval context these transformations may be used to ensure that data resources are presented to the user in a form and format that is apt at that time.

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S. Visscher, P.J.F. Lucas, C. Schurink, M. Bonten, J. Wolffelaar, and P. van de Werken. Incorporating Evaluation into the Design of a Decision Support System. In: Health Continuum and Data Exchange, Pages: 54-60, IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EU, 2004.

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Generic engine for user model based adaptation. , June, 2004.

User model based adaptation becomes more and more important in interactive systems. In this paper we first review the di erent possible adaptation models and discuss the concepts of push, pull and hybrid adaptation. We realize that there is little known explicitly hybrid adaptation. We thus propose a way to add hybrid adaptation (which also provides push and pull adaptation) to interactive systems. Consequently such interactive systems combine the advantages of push and pull adaptation in a domain dependend way.

To be able to perform research on adaptation strategies in general we have implemented an adapatation engine, which provides modular support for adding adaptation to existing or newly developed systems. It allows the authors of the programs using the adaptation to focus on the adaptation they are going to use instead of on the implementation. The adaptation engine works with pluggable adaptation models and as such it is straightforward to change the adaptation model of a system, or to test out di erent adaptation models.

Finally we give a short introduction into an adaptation model editor and an adaptation model viewer we developed for maintaining and developing adaptation models.

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O. Zoeter, A. Ypma, and T. Heskes. Improved unscented Kalman smoothing for stock volatility estimation. , Edited by: A. Bassos, J. Principe, J. Larsen, T. Adali, and S. Douglas. 2004.

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Lecture-Notes

H.A. (Erik) Proper. Architecture-driven Information Systems Engineering. DaVinci Series, Institute for Information and Computing Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2004.

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Reports

S. Bosman, and Th.P. van der Weide. Assistance for the domain modeling dialog. Technical report: NIII-R0421, Computing Science Institute, University of Nijmegen, 2004.

This paper considers the domain modeling dialog between domain expert and system analyst. In this dialog, the system analyst interprets the domain knowledge provided by the expert, and creates a formal model that captures this knowledge. As the expert may not express knowledge in a very precise way, the system analyst has to find the correct interpretation out of many possible interpretations.
In order to improve the quality of the modeling dialog, we propose a mechanism that enables the system analyst to have a better idea of the intentions of the domain expert, especially where the expert expresses these intentions poorly.

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Ildiko Flesch, and P.J.F. Lucas. Markov Equivalence in Bayesian Networks. Technical report: NIII-R0436, August, Institute for Computing and Information Science, University of Nijmegen, 2004.

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Paul de Vrieze, P. van Bommel, and Th.P. van der Weide. A Method for Incorporating User Modelling. Technical report: NIII-R0448, 2004.

In this paper a method is presented for adding user modelling to existing software systems. The method consists of seven steps that lead from initial analysis to the definition and evaluation of the elements needed for the adaptive behaviour. Further the concept of an adaptation element is introduced. Such an adaptation element can be used to determine the impact of personalisations.

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Professional

H.A. (Erik) Proper. Systeemontwikkeling is Evolutie. In: Informatie, Nr: 6, Vol: 46, Pages: 44-48, 2004, In Dutch.

Traditioneel worden informatiesystemen ontwikkeld middels omvangrijke projecten. Het is echter maar de vraag inhoeverre een traditionele manier van denken in termen van projecten nog van toepassing is in onze moderne digitale samenleving. Dit artikel beoogt de achterliggende vragen nader te analyseren, en tracht de lezer aan te zetten tot nadenken over de rol van projecten in traditionele zin. Het doel van dit artikel is daarmee dus niet zo zeer om een concrete nieuwe werkwijze aan te dragen, maar eerder een discussie te starten over de essentiŽle uitdagingen bij informatiesysteemontwikkeling.

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H.A. (Erik) Proper. Informatiekundigen in het Digitale Tijdperk. In: .ego - Magazine voor Informatiekundigen, Nr: 2, Vol: 3, Pages: 4, SBIT, University of Tilburg, Tilburg, The Netherlands, EU, 2004, In Dutch.

De afgelopen eeuw heeft voor een groot deel in het teken gestaan van de verdere ontwikkeling en uitbouw van de industriŽle samenleving. Inmiddels hebben we echter de eerste schreden gezet in een nieuw tijdperk; het digitale tijdperk. Ik spreek hierbij bewust niet over "het informatietijdperk". In de laatste decennia van de vorige eeuw was regelmatig te horen hoe we het industriŽle tijdperk achter ons zouden laten, en over zouden gaan naar "het informatietijdperk". Naar mijn mening liepen die uitspraken zo'n honderd Š honderdvijftig jaar achter de feiten aan. Mijns inziens is het informatietijdperk onlosmakelijk verbonden met de opkomst van het industriŽle tijdperk. Tegelijkertijd met de industrialisering, kwamen er steeds meer informatie- en documentstromen op gang om diezelfde samenleving in goede banen te leiden. Natuurlijk waren er voor de industrialisering ook al informatiestromen. Deze stromen kregen echter pas echt vorm toen de industrialisering eenmaal op gang kwam. Gaandeweg zijn er steeds meer organisaties ontstaan, zoals financiŽle instel lingen en regeluitvoerende instanties, die in essentie als grote informatieverwerkende fabrieken te zien zijn.

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V.E. van Reijswoud, and H.A. (Erik) Proper. Struggling in the Bush: ICT-onderwijs in Oeganda. In: TINFON, Nr: 2, Vol: 13, Pages: 59-61, June, 2004, In Dutch.

Oeganda ligt in het hart van het Afrikaanse continenent en probeert vanuit een achterstandspositie aansluiting te vinden bij de rest van de wereld. De laatste jaren zijn een aantal grote economische initiatieven gelanceerd om deze aansluiting te realiseren. ICT speelt hierin een belangrijke rol. De dominante rol van ICT in Europa en Noord Amerika noopt ook Oeganda te investeren in een betrouwbare ICT infrastructuur. Dit voornemen heeft echter nogal wat voeten in aarde omdat er nauwelijks ICT kennis en ervaring met ICT projecten in het land aanwezig is. Universiteiten proberen deze leemte op te vullen, maar hoe gaat dat als er weinig gekwalificeerde docenten zijn? In dit artikel trachten de auteurs een situatieschets te geven van ICT onderwijs in Oeganda. Hierbij zal tevens ingegaan worden op enkele van de uitdagingen die er liggen op zowel het gebied van ICT kennisontwikkeling als op het gebied van het ICT onderwijs.

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D.B.B. Rijsenbrij. Outsourcing zonder enterprise architectuur lijkt op autorijden zonder veiligheidsgordel. Technical report: NIII-R0404, Nijmegen Institute for Information and Computing Sciences, University of Nijmegen, 2004.

Door het economisch zwaar weer waarin wij verzeild zijn geraakt, zien veel financieel alerte business managers outsourcing als de oplossingsrichting bij uitstek om te komen tot significante kostenreductie. Outsourcing van (delen van) de IT functie (ITO), of zelfs totale business processen (BPO) wordt bovendien gezien als de panacee om complexe probleemsituaties en moeizame administratieprocessen buiten de deur te leggen.

Aan de andere kant vertoont het IT-landschap van de meeste ondernemingen en instellingen een chaotisch beeld ondanks de opschonende werking die het Y2Kprobleem (de millenniumovergang) en de overgang naar de euro hadden kunnen hebben. Een bruikbare enterprise architectuur, die kan dienen als stuurinstrument bij cruciale beslissingen over complexe transformaties in de onderneming, waaronder outsourcing, ontbreekt veelal.

De auteurs breken een lans voor hun opvatting dat verantwoorde outsourcing verankerd hoort te zijn in een duidelijke enterprise architectuur. Zij stellen daarom dat outsourcing zonder enterprise architectuur lijkt op autorijden zonder veiligheidsgordel. Het lijkt een tijdje gemakkelijk te zitten, maar bij een forse confrontatie van de onderneming met totaal andere marktomstandigheden, significant veranderende consumentenpatronen of nieuwe innovatieve technologische mogelijkheden zijn de negatieve gevolgen niet meer te overzien.

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